Samun Samun Labarin Bincike a Afirka

Published by Joy Owango on

Tsakanin Kimiyyar Dijital jerin labaran akan binciken da ya danganci SDG, memba na kwamitin mu na shawara Joy Owango ya rubuta game da SDG 4, Ingantaccen Ilimi.

Karanta ainihin labarin a digital-science.com/blog/perspectives/sdg-series-accessing-research_info-in-africa/

Joy Owango, darekta a TCC Afirka

Samun Samun Labarin Bincike a Afirka

Bayan 'yan shekaru da suka gabata, lokacin da nake aiki a kan digirin digirin-digirgir a cikin Sadarwar Masana, Na tuna da matuƙar ƙoƙari na samun takardun bincike da suka dace da ayyukan da na yi. Na ji takaici sosai cewa kawai wurin da zan sami damar samun waɗannan takaddun shine ta hanyar ɗakin karatu na cibiyar bincike ta ƙasa da ke Nairobi. Ina zama a waje da laburaren bayan ya rufe, kawai don samun damar amfani da e-albarkatun ta amfani da WiFi. A lokacin, na yi tunanin wannan lamari ne - ɓangare na gwagwarmayar yin karatun digiri na biyu. Bayan shekaru goma ne kawai daga baya na gano game da motsin kariyar da ake samu a Open Access. Abin da mai buɗe ido! Ofayan waɗannan “ta yaya ban san wannan ba?” lokacin.

Ofaya daga cikin abin takaici (kuma, bari mu fuskance shi, ya zama abin ban takaici!) Ɓangarorin bincike suna cikin ƙoƙarin samun dama ga litattafan ilimi masu dacewa, kawai don gano cewa babu shi. Wannan ba sabon matsala bane. Paywalls ya cika yawa a fannin buga littattafai. Idan aka duba Afirka, matsakaicin jami'ar ba zata iya samun damar yin amfani da albarkatun e-don aiwatar da bincike ba kuma yana iyakance ga bayanan da masu ba da talla da kuma abokan masana'antar bincike suka bayar. Abin takaici, wasu bayanan wannan har ila yau ba su dace ba, don haka akwai ƙarin iyakancewar samun dama ga ilimin sababbin abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin bincike.

Cin nasarar Kalubale ta hanyar Hadin kai

Duk da waɗannan ƙalubalen, yawancin ƙasashen Saharar Sahara sun taru don ƙirƙirar laburaren laburare cewa goyan bayan su ilimi da al'ummomin bincike. Sunyi shawarwari tare da masu wallafa labarai da abokan masana'antu na bincike don samun dama ga albarkatun don binciken bincike. Koyaya, duk da kasancewar waɗannan Consortia na ɗakin karatu, kuma ban da ɗakin Laburaren Africaasa na Afirka ta Kudu da Bayanin Consortia, yawancin har yanzu suna ƙoƙari don samun damar amfani, amma tsada, bayanai don gano abubuwan bincike. Afirka ta Kudu a matsayin ta ban mamaki ba abin mamaki bane kamar yadda, a cewar Cibiyar Kididdiga ta UNESCO ta 2018, ta kashe kashi 6.16% na GDP kan ilimi - babban kashe kudade ne idan aka kwatanta da sauran ƙasashen Afirka.

A kwatankwacin, consortia consortia a Turai sun iya zuwa tare da yarjejeniyoyi na buɗe hanyar Buɗewa, kamar Projekt DEAL a Jamus, wanda ya kirkiro da haɗin gwiwa tare da Yanayin Springer wanda ya haifar da damar samun labaran da aka buga da kuma Buɗa Buga don masu binciken Jamusanci ta hanyar biyan kuɗi ɗaya. Dangane da yarjejeniya, masu bincike a cibiyoyin Projekt DEAL zasu iya bugawa a kusan mujallu 1,900 Springer Nature na Yuro 2,750 (ko kuma kusan $ 3,000) kowace takarda. Wannan kuɗin yana da mutuƙar gaske kuma ba mai araha bane ga consortia na Afirka.

Ingantaccen Ilimi da SDG 4

Ta yaya za a cimma burin ci gaba na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya karo na hudu game da Ilimin Ingantawa zai taimaka wajen kawo canji mai kyau a wannan yankin? SDG4 yana da waɗannan abubuwan da ke gaba:

  • A shekarar 2030, tabbatar cewa dukkan matasa da kuma babban adadin manya, mata da maza, sun sami ilimin rubuce-rubuce da lissafi.
  • A shekarar 2030, tabbatar da cewa dukkan masu koyo sun sami ilimin da kuma kwarewar da ake buƙata don inganta ci gaban mai dorewa, gami da, tsakanin waɗansu, ta hanyar ilimi don ci gaba mai ɗorewa da ci gaba mai ɗorewa, haƙƙin ɗan adam, daidaiton jinsi, haɓaka al'adun zaman lafiya da rashin tashin hankali, duniya 'yan ƙasa da godiya ga bambancin al'adu da kuma gudummawar al'adu don ci gaba mai ɗorewa

Bisa ga Rahoton Ci gaban Tattalin Arziki na Afirka na 2020 ta Bankin Raya Afirka, kasa da 10% na yawan mutanen da shekarunsu suka wuce 25 kuma suka girmi suna da ilimin jami'a a duk fadin kasashen Afirka.

Wannan ana ɗan tsammani. Shirye-shiryen karatun digiri ba su da arha, masu tsada tsakanin $ 4,000 zuwa $ 18,000, gwargwadon hanya da jami'a. Yawancin ɗaliban karatun digiri na biyu masu tallafawa kansu ne kuma suna son yin aiki tare da karatun su. Biyan don samun damar buga littattafan da aka turo bashi da sauki bane, kuma yana iya zama dalilin haifar da damuwa ga ɗalibai da yawa, saboda iyakance dama ga daliban bincike sun samu damar tattara bayanan da suke akwai maimakon abinda yafi dacewa.

Studentsaliban da ke ba da shaidar kammala karatun digiri suna da saurin zama masu sa'a, saboda yawancin masu ba da gudummawarsu suna iya biyan damar samun albarkatun da ake buƙata don gudanar da bincike, kuma don cajin marubutan da ake buƙata don buga binciken. Sakamakon abu ne na ƙwararrun masu bincike tsakanin waɗanda ke tallafawa ɗakunan karatun da waɗanda ba su bane. Buɗaɗɗun Buɗa na iya rage wannan rashin daidaituwa, tabbatar da cewa ɗalibai sun sami ingantaccen ilimi, kuma hakan ba ta iyakance ta hanyar zaɓar littattafan masana karatun makarantun su ba da damar samar da damar yin amfani da su, ba tare da la'akari da tallafin kuɗi ko a'a ba.

Rage Rashin daidaituwa Game da Samun Ilimin Bincike

Bayanin bincike na Budewa ya ba da damar zafafa dimokiradiyya ta hanyar samar da wadatattun albarkatu ga ɗalibai da masu bincike. Ormwararren ilimin kimiyya da ɗabi'a na bincike sun haɗa da tallafi da ƙarfin iyawar ɗan adam. Manne da yake riƙe wannan shine bayanan. Musamman, Buƙatar Samun damar Buɗewa yana ba da haɓaka a cikin haɓaka kyakkyawan kayan aikin bincike da ake samarwa ta hanyar samar da ƙarin fahimta a cikin binciken da ake gudanarwa. Masu bincike suna iya guje wa kwafin aiki. Suna iya haɓaka ganinsu da tasirinsu don tallafin karatu ta hanyar lissafi. Binciken bincikensu yana da sauƙin raba. Mafi mahimmanci, idan ana samun bayanai kamar Open Access, ma'adinan rubutu ya fi sauƙi.

Tallafin ci gaba

A cikin 2007 Tarayyar Afirka ta ba da izinin cewa dole ne ƙasashen Afirka su kashe aƙalla 1% na GDP akan Bincike da Ci gaba (R&D). Wannan wani bangare ne na Dabarun Kimiyya, Fasaha da Innovation na Afirka (STISA-2024) gabatarwa wanda ke bayani game da makomar Afirka don haɓakawa da amsawa ga damar da za a sami ƙarin kuɗin kimiyya, fasaha da kirkire-kirkire (STI) a duk faɗin nahiyar. A ƙarshen rana, albarkatun (kudi, kirki da mutum) za su ƙayyade nasarar STISA-2024, da na STI da ci gaban masana'antu a nahiyar. Yayin fahimtar darajar tallafin duniya da saka hannun jari na kai tsaye na kasashen waje, matakin kudaden Afirka da hada-hadar kudade da ke samar da albarkatun zai yanke shawarar matsayin mallakar Afirka game da ci gaban STI, a sabili da haka, jagororin ci gaban tattalin arziki da ci gaban muhalli na gaba a nahiyar. (Rahoton STISA 2019).

Wannan alƙawarin ya haifar da ƙasashe 15 na Afirka da suka yi yunƙurin kashe aƙalla 1% na GDP akan R&D. Wadannan kasashen suna daga cikin abubuwan Tallafin Karatun Ilimin kimiyya wanda daidai manufarsu ita ce haɓaka buɗewar kimiyya da bayanai a cikin ƙasashensu. Ofungiyar Universungiyar Jami'o'in Afirka, umbungiyar duk cibiyoyin karatun Afirka, sun dukufa sosai don haɓaka buɗe kimiyya da bayanai a matsayin wata hanya ta haɓaka fitowar bincike na Afirka da inganta iyawar ta.

A watan Satumbar 2019, Habasha ta amince da a manufofin samun damar bude baki na kasa domin makarantun gaba da ilimi. Bugu da ƙari da ba da izinin Buɗaɗɗun Buɗa zuwa wallafe-wallafe da bayanai, sabon manufar ta ƙarfafa ayyukan buɗe ilimin ta hanyar haɗawa da '' buɗe 'a matsayin ɗayan ma'auni don kimantawa da kimantawa da shawarwarin bincike. Wannan ya sanya ta zama ƙasar Afirka ta farko da ta sami tsarin buɗe hanyar buɗe bayanai, wanda ke ba da izinin buɗe dama ga duk labaran da aka buga, ra'ayoyi, rubuce-rubuce da kuma bayanan da aka samu sakamakon binciken da aka ba da kudaden jama'a wanda ma'aikata da ɗalibai a jami'o'in da Ma'aikatar Kimiyya ke gudanarwa da Babban Ilimi - sama da jami'o'i 47 da ke fadin Habasha.

neman Gaba

Afirka na haɓaka buga littattafan buɗe karatu ta hanyar academicwararrun Cibiyar Kimiyya ta Afirka (AAS), wanda ke da Researchararren Bincike Platform tare da haɗin gwiwar Faculty of 1000 (F1000). Kungiyoyi kamar su Bincike4Life (wanda ilimin kimiyyar dijital yake tallafawa ta hanyar samun dama zuwa girma) sun kuma ba da damar yin amfani da bayanan bincike, yayin da TCC Afirka ke ci gaba da tallafawa masu bincike ta hanyar gina amincewa da ilimin da ke kewaye da samun damar binciken bayanai. Tana samar da wani dandamali don saurin wallafawa da kuma bita a matsayin masu bincike ga AAS da kuma shirye-shiryen da aka tallafa ta hanyar dandamalin kudade, watau Alliance for Acrelerating Excellence in Science in Africa. Har ila yau, Afirka na da wuraren buɗe keɓaɓɓen kayan buɗewa wanda ake kira AfirkaArxiv, wanda ke karɓar ƙaddamar da ilimi daga masu bincike na Afirka da duk wanda ke gudanar da bincike a Afirka.

Wadannan ci gaban a cikin kimiyyar budewa suna taimakawa haɓaka ƙimar ilimi da kuma a cikin Afirka, kuma mafi mahimmanci shine ba wa masu bincike na Afirka haɓaka matakin mallaka a cikin binciken su. Ta hanyar mai da hankali kan haɗuwa da waɗannan manufofin SDG, ana fatan cewa masu bincike na Afirka, kuma bibiyar duniyar bincike na duniya, za su sami fa'ida daga daidaiton damar yin amfani da bayanan bincike, don haka ingantaccen bincike.


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