Muna alfahari da kasancewa cikin mu Nature wannan makon, tare Masakhane yadda muke aiki 'Kimiyyar Decolonising'.

Karanta sigar wannan labarin a Faransanci a ecomag.fr/les-langues-africaines-pour-obtenir-plus-de-termes-scientifiques-sur-mesure-ecologie-science/

Yawancin kalmomin da aka saba da su na kimiyya ba a taɓa rubuta su cikin yarukan Afirka ba. Yanzu, masu bincike daga ko'ina cikin Afirka suna canza hakan.

Malaman ɗalibai da yawa a cikin ɗakin karatu, suna neman littattafai ko karatu, a Kwalejin Horar da Malamai ta Fort Portal a Uganda.
Masu bincike suna son fadada kalmomin kimiyya a cikin yarukan Afirka ciki har da Luganda, wanda ake magana a Gabashin Afirka. Hoto: dalibi-malamai a Kampala. Credit: Ido mara kyau/Alamy

Babu ainihin kalmar isiZulu don dinosaur. Ana kiran ƙwayoyin cuta amagciwane, amma babu kalmomi daban don ƙwayoyin cuta ko ƙwayoyin cuta. Kwata -kwata shine ikhwakhi (furta kwa-ki); babu wani lokaci don canzawa ja. Kuma masu bincike da masu sadarwa na kimiyya ta amfani da yaren, wanda fiye da mutane miliyan 14 ke magana a kudancin Afirka, suna gwagwarmayar yarda da kalmomin juyin halitta.

IsiZulu yana ɗaya daga cikin kusan harsuna 2,000 da ake magana da su a Afirka. Kimiyyar zamani ta yi watsi da mafi yawan waɗannan yarukan, amma yanzu ƙungiyar masu bincike daga Afirka na son canza hakan.Menene isiZulu ga dinosaur? Yadda kimiyya ta yi watsi da harsunan Afirka

Wani aikin bincike mai suna Kimiyyar Decolonise yana shirin fassara takardun kimiyya guda 180 daga uwar garken rubutaccen shirin AfirkaArXiv zuwa harsunan Afirka 6: isiZulu da Arewacin Sotho daga kudancin Afirka; Hausa da Yarbawa daga Yammacin Afirka; da Luganda da Amharic daga Gabashin Afirka.

Kimanin mutane miliyan 98 ne ke magana da waɗannan yarukan. A farkon wannan watan, AfricanArXiv kira don ƙaddamarwa daga marubutan da ke sha'awar yin la'akari da takardunsu don fassarawa. Ranar ƙarshe shine 20 Agusta.

Takaddun da aka fassara za su mamaye fannoni da yawa na kimiyya, fasaha, injiniya da lissafi. Tallafin Lacuna ne ke tallafawa wannan aikin, mai ba da gudummawar ilimin kimiyya don masu bincike a ƙasashe masu ƙarancin kuɗi da na tsakiya. An ƙaddamar da shi shekara guda da ta gabata daga masu ba da agaji da masu ba da tallafi na gwamnati daga Turai da Arewacin Amurka, da Google.

Harsunan da aka bari a baya

Rashin kalmomin kimiyya a cikin yarukan Afirka yana da sakamako na zahiri, musamman a fannin ilimi. A Afirka ta Kudu, alal misali, kasa da kashi 10% na 'yan kasar suna magana da Ingilishi a matsayin yarensu na gida, amma babban harshe ne na koyarwa a makarantu - abin da masana suka ce yana kawo cikas ga koyon kimiyya da lissafi.

Ana barin yarukan Afirka a baya a juyin juya halin yanar gizo, in ji Kathleen Siminyu, ƙwararre kan koyon injin da sarrafa harsunan halitta don yarukan Afirka da ke Kenya. "Ana ganin yarukan Afirka kamar wani abu da kuke magana a gida, ba a cikin aji ba, ba ya fitowa a cikin kasuwancin. Abu daya ne ga kimiyya, ”in ji ta.

Siminyu wani ɓangare ne na Masakhane, ƙungiyar tushen ciyawa na masu bincike waɗanda ke sha'awar sarrafa harshe na halitta a cikin yarukan Afirka. Masakhane, wanda ke nufin 'mu yi gini tare' a isiZulu, yana da membobi sama da 400 daga kasashe kusan 30 na nahiyar. Shekaru uku kenan suna aiki tare.

Aikin Kimiyyar Decolonise yana ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ƙungiyar ke aiwatarwa; wasu sun hada da gano maganganun ƙiyayya a Najeriya da koyar da dabarun koyan injin don gane sunaye da wuraren Afirka.

Daga ƙarshe, Kimiyyar Decolonise tana da niyyar ƙirƙirar ƙamus na kan layi kyauta na kalmomin kimiyya a cikin yaruka shida, da amfani da su don horar da allurar koyon injin don fassarar. Masu binciken suna fatan kammala wannan aikin a farkon 2022. Amma akwai babban buri: don rage haɗarin waɗannan yarukan da suka zama tsofaffi ta hanyar ba su ƙarfi mai ƙarfi akan layi.

Halittar Magana

Kimiyyar Decolonise za ta ɗauki masu fassara don yin aiki a kan takardu daga AfricArXiv wanda marubucin farko ɗan Afirka ne, in ji babban mai binciken Jade Abbott, ƙwararren masanin koyon injin da ke Johannesburg, Afirka ta Kudu. Kalmomin da ba su da daidaituwa a cikin yaren da aka yi niyya za a yi musu alama don ƙwararrun kalmomin da masu sadarwa na kimiyya su iya haɓaka sabbin sharuɗɗa. Abbott ya ce "Ba kamar fassara littafi ba ne, inda kalmomin za su kasance." "Wannan aikin motsa jiki ne na samar da kalmomi."

Amma "ba ma son fito da wata sabuwar kalma gaba ɗaya", in ji Sibusiso Biyela, marubuci a ScienceLink, kamfanin sadarwa na kimiyya da ke Johannesburg wanda abokin tarayya ne a aikin. "Muna son mutumin da ya karanta wannan labarin ko kalmar ya fahimci abin da ake nufi da farko da suka gan shi."

Biyela, wanda ke rubutu game da kimiyya a isiZulu, sau da yawa yana samun sababbin sharuɗɗa ta hanyar kallon tushen Girkanci ko Latin na kalmomin kimiyya da ke akwai a Turanci. Planet, alal misali, ya fito ne daga tsohuwar Girkanci shirin, ma'ana 'mai yawo', saboda ana ganin taurari suna motsawa cikin sararin dare. A cikin isiZulu, wannan ya zama umhambi, wanda kuma ke nufin mai yawo. Wata kalma don duniya, da ake amfani da ita cikin kamus na makaranta, ita ce umma, wanda ke nufin 'Duniya' ko 'duniya'. Sauran sharuddan suna siffa: don 'burbushin', alal misali, Biyela ya ƙirƙira jumlar amathambo amadala atholakala emhlabathini, ko 'tsoffin kasusuwa da aka samu a kasa'.

A wasu fannonin kimiyya, kamar binciken nazarin halittu, masu bincike da ke ƙoƙarin neman sharuɗɗan da suka dace za su buƙaci shiga cikin hanyoyin magana. Lolie Makhubu-Badenhorst, mukaddashin daraktan ofishin tsare-tsare da bunƙasa harshe a Jami'ar KwaZulu-Natal a Durban, ta ce rashin samun kalmar kimiyya daga rubutattun bayanai ba yana nufin babu shi ba. “An rubuto ku a tsakiya, ni na mayar da hankali ne ta baki. Ilimin yana nan, amma ba a rubuta shi sosai ba, ”in ji Makhubu-Badenhorst, wanda baya cikin aikin Kimiyyar Decolonise.

Biyela ya ce kwararrun masana ilimin kimiyyar Decolonise na Kimiyya za su fito da wani tsari don haɓaka kalmomin kimiyya isiZulu. Da zarar an kammala, za su yi amfani da shi ga sauran yarukan.

Ƙungiyar za ta ba da ƙamus ɗin ta azaman kayan aikin kyauta ga 'yan jarida da masu sadarwa na kimiyya, da allon harsunan ƙasa, jami'o'i da kamfanonin fasaha, waɗanda ke ƙara samar da fassarar ta atomatik. Biyela ta ce "Idan kun ƙirƙiri kalma kuma wasu ba sa amfani da ita, ba za ta mamaye cikin yaren ba."

Wata mata tana yin kwafi a cibiyar Google Artificial Intelligence center da ke Accra, Ghana, Afirka.
Google yana neman taimako don inganta ingancin fassarar yarensa na Afirka. Credit: Cristina Aldehuela/AFP ta hanyar Getty

Babban fasaha: 'muna buƙatar taimakon ku'

Masu binciken Masakhane sun ce kamfanonin fasaha na duniya a tarihi sun yi watsi da harsunan Afirka, amma a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, sun fara ba da tallafin bincike a fagen.

"Muna sane da cewa dubban harsunan Afirka a halin yanzu ba su da wakilci a cikin software na fassara," in ji mai magana da yawun Google Nature. Babban kamfanin fasaha yana son fadada Google Translate don haɗa ƙarin harsunan Afirka, ciki har da Twi, Ewe, Baoulé, Bambara, Fula, Kanuri, Krio, Isoko, Luganda, Sango, Tiv da Urhobo, in ji su. Koyaya, yana buƙatar “masu magana da waɗannan yarukan don taimaka mana inganta ingancin fassarar mu” don a haɗa su cikin sabis.

"Babban ra'ayin shine mallakar al'adun kimiyya," in ji Biyela. Duka shi da Abbott sun ce yana da mahimmanci a canza kimiyya ta hanyar barin mutane suyi bincike da yin magana game da kimiyya a cikin yarensu. A halin yanzu, yana yiwuwa a yi amfani da yarukan Afirka don yin magana game da siyasa da wasanni, amma ba kimiyya ba, in ji Biyela.

Hakanan, Ingilishi shine mafi girman harshe na kula da muhalli da kiyayewa - amma sai dai idan mutane sun fahimci ma'anar takamaiman sharuɗɗa da dabaru kuma za su iya magana game da su cikin yarensu na gida, za su iya jin an katse su daga ƙoƙarin gwamnati don kiyaye yanayin ƙasa da nau'in halitta, in ji Bheka Nxele , manajan shirye -shirye don sake dawo da yanayin muhalli, tsarin muhalli da kare muhalli a gundumar eThekwini na Afirka ta Kudu.

Masu binciken sun damu da cewa idan ba a haɗa yarukan Afirka a cikin allurar intanet ba, za su iya, a ƙarshe, su zama tsofaffi da mantawa. “Waɗannan harsuna ne [mutane] suna magana. Waɗannan harsuna ne da suke amfani da su kowace rana, kuma suna rayuwa tare da ganin gaskiyar abin da ke cikin x yawan shekaru, yarensu na iya mutuwa saboda babu sawun dijital, ”in ji Siminyu.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02218-x


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