In bugu na ilimi, kwalliyar kwalliya ce ta malamin ilimi ko takarda kimiyya wanda ke gabanta na takamammen bita da buga a nazarin ɗan adam ilimi ko mujallar kimiyya. Za a iya samun karfen ɗin, sau da yawa kamar nau'in nau'in-nau'in-kyauta wanda ba a kyauta, kafin da / ko bayan an buga takarda a cikin jarida.

Daga Wikipedia, Encyclopedia na kyauta // Duba kuma: Rubuce (bugu)

Tsarin aiki wanda aka kafa a duniya don raba sakamakon malamai shine ta hanyar buga jarida. A Afirka, ana buga mujallu da yawa a cikin bugawa kawai, don haka labaran da aka buga a nan ba za a iya gano su ba. 

Masu binciken Afirka suna fuskantar babban ƙin yarda don gabatarwa ga mujallu na duniya (na yamma), saboda dalilai daban-daban ciki har da nuna bangaranci ko nahawu da kuma batun tsara su. Sauran shingen sune na APC da kuma samun damar samun bayanai na masana kimiyya na yamma don nazarin adabi. 

Abubuwan da aka fara bugawa sune ƙarshen rubutun marubucin kuma ana iya raba shi akan layi kyauta. Idan aka raba akan matattarar masana na musamman, kamar ɗayan waɗanda aka haɗa tare da AfirkaArXiv, za a sami lasisin rubuce-rubucen da aka karɓa (galibi tare da CC-BY), sanya su tare da doi da kuma lissafin su a cikin mahimman bayanai na dijital - don haka kafa fifiko ga marubucin da kuma sanya aikin yayi daidai kuma a lokaci guda za'a iya gano shi. Wannan nau'i na adana abubuwa an san shi da Green Buɗaɗɗiyar Ganawa.

AfricArXiv kuma yana maraba da ƙaddamar da jinkirtawa - fassarar rubutun wata sanarwa bayan nazarin takwarorina da kafin tsarawa da tsarawa. Yawancin mujallu suna cajin kuɗi don samun damar ƙarshe, sigar fasalin labarin bincike. Ta hanyar raba sigar da aka duba a kan AfricArXiv, malamai suna tabbatar da cewa za a iya samun damar aikinsu kyauta. 

Abin da ke Preprint ta asapbio.org

Jagora na manufofin saiti da kuma ayyukanta na farko

asapbio.org/preprint-servers

Rkewaya

Beck, J., Ferguson, CA, Funk, K., Hanson, B., Harrison, M., Ide-Smith, M.,… Swaminathan, S. (2020, 21 ga Yuli). Gina dogara ga abubuwanda za a shirya: shawarwari don sabobin da sauran masu ruwa da tsaki. doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/8dn4w

Soderberg Courtney K., Errington Timothy M., Nosek Brian A. (2020) Amincewa da alamomin farko: binciken bincike tsakanin masu bincike. R. bude sci.7201520 http://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201520

Rouhi S, (Disamba 2019) "Don shirya, ko kuma ba don bugawa ba?" Menene damar farawa, wanda ba a sauƙaƙe-bincike ba a cikin jama'a? Blog PLOS

Sarabipour S, Debat HJ, Emmott E, Burgess SJ, Schwessinger B, Hensel Z (2019) A kan darajar kayan kwalliya: Matsayin mai neman aikin yi da wuri. PLoS Biol 17 (2): e3000151. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000151

Tennant J, Bauin S, James S, & Kant J (2018). Samfurin shimfidar wuri mai faɗi: Rahoton gabatarwa don Exchangeungiyar Exchangewararrun Ma'aikata na Ilimi akan ayyukan gyara. doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/796tu

Speidel R & Spitzer M (2018) Preprints: Abin da, Dalilin, Yaya. Cibiyar Kimiyya don Buɗa - Blog. cos.io/blog/preprints- yaya-why-how/