Kupeza Zambiri Zofufuza ku Africa

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Mkati mwa Science Science mndandanda wama blog pa kafukufuku wokhudzana ndi SDG, membala wathu wa board wachilangizo Joy Owango analemba za SDG 4, Maphunziro Abwino.

Werengani nkhani yoyambirira ku digit-science.com/blog/perspectives/sdg-series-accessing-research_info-in-africa/

Joy Owango, wotsogolera pa TCC Africa

Kupeza Zambiri Zofufuza ku Africa

Zaka zingapo zapitazo, ndikugwira ntchito yanga ya digiri yoyamba ku Mass Communication, ndimakumbukira bwino lomwe kuti ndikuvutika kupeza mapepala ofufuzira omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ndinkakhala wokhumudwa kwambiri kuti malo okha omwe ndimatha kupeza mapepalawa ndi kudzera mu library yakampani yofufuzira yapadziko lonse ku Nairobi. Ndimakhala kunja kwa laibulale ndikatseka, kuti ndingopeza ma e-kugwiritsa ntchito ma WiFi awo. Panthawiyo, ndimaganiza kuti izi zinali zofunikira - gawo lomenyera nkhondo yochita digiri yoyamba. Sipanatenge zaka khumi kenako ndinazindikira za kayendedwe ka Open Access. Ndi kutsegulatu kwamaso bwanji! Mmodzi mwa iwo "sindinadziwe bwanji izi?" mphindi.

Chimodzi mwazinthu zokhumudwitsa kwambiri (ndipo, tiyeni tidutse, zimapweteketsa malire!) Pazowunikira poyesa kupeza mabuku oyenerera, titha kupeza kuti palibe. Ili si vuto latsopano. Malipiro atchuka pakufalitsa maphunziro. Tikuyang'ana ku Africa, yunivesite wamba sangakwanitse kupeza ndalama zogwirira ntchito zofufuzira ndipo ndi zochepa zomwe zimaperekedwa ndi ofalitsa ndi anzawo ogwira ntchito pa kafukufuku. Tsoka ilo, zina mwatsatanetsatanezi sizikudziwika pano, kotero pali malire ena pakupeza chidziwitso cha zomwe aphunzira posachedwa.

Kuthana ndi Mavuto Kuphatikiza

Ngakhale zili ndi izi, mayiko ambiri a Kum'mwera kwa Sahara asonkhana kuti apange library library zomwe zimathandizira magulu awo ophunzira ndi kafukufuku. Amakambirana ndi ofalitsa komanso ogwira nawo ntchito m'mafakitale ofufuza kuti athe kupeza zothandizira kupeza. Komabe, ngakhale kuli komwe kulibe mabuku awa, komanso kupatula la South Africa National Library and Information Consortia, ambiri amavutika kupeza njira zofunira zopezeka kafukufuku, koma zotsika mtengo. Dziko la South Africa kupatula apa silodabwitsa chifukwa, malinga ndi bungwe la UNESCO Institute for Statistics la 2018, lakhala likugwiritsa ntchito 6.16% ya GDP yake pa maphunziro - kutaya kwakukulu kuyerekeza ndi mayiko ena ambiri amu Africa.

Poyerekeza, mabungwe a library ku Europe amatha kubwera ndi mapangano osintha a Open Access, monga Projekt DEAL ku Germany, omwe adapanga mgwirizano ndi Springer Nature womwe udapangitsa kuti azitha kupeza zolemba zolipiridwa komanso kufalitsa kwa Open Access kwa ofufuza achi Germany kudzera pa ndalama imodzi. Malinga ndi mgwirizano, ofufuza m'mabungwe a Projekt DEAL azitha kufalitsa pafupifupi 1,900 Springer Nature magazini kwa € 2,750 (kapena pafupifupi $ 3,000) papepala. Ndalamayi ndiyokwera kwambiri ndipo siyotsika mtengo ku library yamu Africa.

Maphunziro Abwino ndi SDG 4

Kodi cholinga chachinayi chokhazikika cha UN Education mu Quality Education chingathandizire bwanji kusintha madera ano? SDG4 ili ndi zotsatirazi:

  • Pofika chaka cha 2030, onetsetsani kuti achinyamata onse ndi kuchuluka kwakukulu kwa achikulire, amuna ndi akazi, amadziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga
  • Pofika chaka cha 2030, onetsetsani kuti ophunzira onse apeza chidziwitso ndi maluso ofunikira kuti apititse patsogolo chitukuko chokhazikika, kuphatikizapo, pakati pa ena, kudzera m'maphunziro a chitukuko chokhazikika ndi njira zokhazikika, ufulu waumunthu, kufanana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi, kulimbikitsa chikhalidwe chamtendere komanso zopanda chiwawa, padziko lonse lapansi Unzika ndi kuyamika kwakusiyana kwa zikhalidwe komanso kuthandiza kwachikhalidwe pachitukuko chokhazikika

Malinga ndi Lipoti la Africa Economic Outlook la 2020 lolembedwe ndi African Development Bank, ochepera 10% ya anthu azaka 25 ndi achikulire omwe amaphunzira maphunziro aku yunivesite kumayiko ambiri a ku Africa.

Izi ndizotheka. Mapulogalamu omaliza maphunziro siotsika mtengo, amawononga ndalama pakati pa $ 4,000 ndi $ 18,000, kutengera maphunzirowa ndi kuyunivesite. Ophunzira ambiri omaliza maphunziro am'mbuyomu amakhala odzidalira ndipo amakonda kugwira ntchito limodzi ndi maphunziro awo. Kulipira kuti mupeze zofalitsa zolipiridwa sikungatheke, ndipo kungakhale chifukwa chovuta kwa ophunzira ambiri, chifukwa chochepa chofufuzira zomwe ophunzira amafufuza pazomwe zilipo kuposa zomwe ndizofunikira kwambiri.

Ophunzira omwe amaliza maphunziro omaliza maphunziro amakhala ndi mwayi wopeza ndalama zambiri, chifukwa ambiri mwa omwe amapereka ndalama amakhala ndi mwayi wopeza zinthu zofunika kuchita pofufuza, komanso kwa wolemba yemwe akuwongolera ndalama zomwe amafunika kufalitsa. Zotsatira zake ndi dichotomy ya ofufuza pakati pa omwe amalandila maphunziro awo ndi omwe sanatero. Open Access ikhoza kuchepetsa izi, kuonetsetsa kuti ophunzira apeza maphunziro abwino kwambiri, komanso kuti sakhala ochepa chifukwa cha kusankha kwa akatswiri omwe amasukulu awo amatha kupereka, mosasamala kanthu kuti ali ndi ndalama kapena ayi.

Kuchepetsa Kusagwirizana pa Kupeza Zambiri Zofufuza

Zambiri zofufuza za Open Access zimatha kupondereza maphunziro apamwamba kudzera pakupereka zofunikira kwa ophunzira ndi ofufuza. Zachilengedwe zamaphunziro zamaphunziro ndi zachilengedwe zokhudzana ndi zachilengedwe zimaphatikizidwa ndikuthandizira pazachilengedwe komanso anthu. Guluu womwe umaphatikiza izi ndi deta. Makamaka, data Open Ofufuzawo amatha kupewa kubwereza ntchito. Amatha kuwonjezera mawonekedwe awo komanso momwe amaphunzirira kudzera pakuphunzira. Kufufuza kwawo kumagawidwa mosavuta. Chofunika kwambiri, ngati deta ipezeka ngati Open Kufikira, migodi yamalemba ndiosavuta.

Zomwe Zimalimbikitsa Kupita Patsogolo

Mu 2007, bungwe la African Union lidalamula kuti maiko aku Africa ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito 1% ya GDP yawo pa Research and Development (R&D). Ili linali gawo la Sayansi, Ukadaulo ndi Njira Yopangira Zinthu ku Africa (STISA-2024) ikuyambitsa zomwe zikuwonetsa tsogolo la Africa kuti ikweze ndikulimbikitsa mwayi wopeza ndalama zambiri za sayansi, ukadaulo ndi nzeru zatsopano (STI) kontinenti yonse. Pamapeto pa tsikulo, zothandizira (zachuma, zamkati ndi anthu) ziziwonetsa kupambana kwa STISA-2024, ndi matenda opatsirana pogonana komanso kutukuka kwa mafakitale. Pomwe tikuzindikira phindu la thandizo lapadziko lonse lapansi komanso ndalama zakunja kwina, kuchuluka kwa ndalama zandalama ku Africa ndizomwe zimayang'anira ndalama zomwe zingatsimikizire kuchuluka kwa umwini wa zachitukuko cha matenda opatsirana pogonana ndipo chifukwa chake, njira zotsogola ndi zochitika zachuma padziko lonse lapansi (STISA Report 2019).

Ntchitozi zapangitsa kuti maiko 15 aku Africa azidzipereka kugwiritsa ntchito 1% ya GDP yawo pa R&D. Mayikowa ndi gawo la Kuyambitsa Makonsolo a Sayansi Cholinga chofananacho ndikupititsa patsogolo sayansi ndi deta m'maiko awo. Association of African University University, bungwe la maambulera ku mabungwe onse ophunzira ku Africa, yadzipereka mofananamo kupititsa patsogolo sayansi komanso deta ngati njira yolimbikitsira zotsatira za kafukufuku mu Africa ndikusintha mawonekedwe ake.

Mu Seputembala 2019, Ethiopia idatengera a lamulo lotsogola la Open Open m'maphunziro apamwamba. Kuphatikiza pa kulamula kuti Kufikira kwa zofalitsa ndi ma data, pulogalamu yatsopanoyo idalimbikitsa njira za sayansi poyera pogwiritsa ntchito 'kutseguka' ngati imodzi mwazomwe mungaganizire ndikuwunikira malingaliro ofufuzira. Izi zimapangitsa kukhala dziko loyamba la ku Africa kukhala ndi mfundo zofikira, zomwe zimalamula kuti Opata azitha kufalitsa zonse zomwe zafalitsidwapo, maumboni, zosindikiza komanso zidziwitso zomwe zimapezeka chifukwa cha kafukufuku yemwe amalipidwa ndi anthu ogwira ntchito ndi ophunzira m'mayunivesite omwe amayendetsedwa ndi Unduna wa Sayansi ndi Maphunziro Apamwamba - mayunivesite oposa 47 omwe akupezeka ku Ethiopia konse.

Kuyang'ana Patsogolo

Africa ikulimbikitsa kufalitsa kwamaphunziro ku Open Access kudzera mu Africa Academy of Science (AAS), yomwe ili ndi Open Research Platform mothandizana ndi Faculty of 1000 (F1000). Mabungwe monga Research4Life (yomwe Digital Science imathandizira kudzera ku miyeso) imaperekanso mwayi wofufuzira, pomwe TCC Africa ikupitilizabe kuthandiza ofufuza pomanga chidaliro chawo komanso chidziwitso chokhudza kupeza zofufuza. Zimapereka nsanja yofalitsa mwachangu komanso kuwunikira kwa anzawo kuti asanthule ndi othandizira omwe amathandizidwa ndi AAS komanso mapulogalamu omwe amathandizidwa ndi nsanja yake, Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa. Africa ilinso ndi chosungira chosavomerezeka cha Open Access chotchedwa AfricaArxiv, yomwe imavomereza zamaphunziro zamaphunziro kuchokera kwa ofufuza aku Africa ndi aliyense amene amachita kafukufuku ku Africa.

Izi zakonzedwa mu sayansi yotseguka zikuthandiza kukonza maphunziro komanso ku Africa, ndipo koposa zonse ndikupatsa ofufuza aku Africa kuchuluka kodziyimira pawokha pakufufuza kwawo. Poganizira zakukwaniritsa zolinga za SDG izi, tikukhulupirira kuti ofufuza aku Africa, komanso gulu lofufuza padziko lonse lapansi, adzapindula ndi mwayi wofanana wofufuza zambiri, motero kufufuza bwino.


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