Timanyadira kupezeka nawo Nature sabata ino, pambali Masakhane momwe tikugwirira ntchito 'Kuthetsa Sayansi'.

Werengani nkhani iyi mu French ku ecomag.fr/les-langues-africaines-pour-obtenir-plus-de-termes-scientifiques-sur-mesure-ecologie-science/

Mawu ambiri odziwika ndi sayansi sanalembedwe m'zilankhulo zaku Africa. Tsopano, ofufuza ochokera ku Africa konse akusintha izi.

Aphunzitsi angapo ophunzira mulaibulale, akufikira mabuku kapena kuphunzira, ku College Portal Teacher Training College ku Uganda.
Ochita kafukufuku akufuna kukulitsa mawu asayansi m'zilankhulo zaku Africa kuphatikiza Chiganda, chomwe chimalankhulidwa ku East Africa. Ojambula: ophunzira-aphunzitsi ku Kampala. Ndalama: Diso Labwino / Alamy

Palibe liwu loyambirira lachiZulu la dinosaur. Majeremusi amatchedwa amagnetic, koma palibe mawu osiyana ma virus kapena bacteria. Quark ndi ikhwakhi (wotchulidwa kwa-ki); palibe nthawi yoti kusintha kofiira. Ndipo ofufuza ndi olankhula zasayansi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito chilankhulochi, chomwe chimalankhulidwa ndi anthu opitilira 14 miliyoni kumwera kwa Africa, amavutika kuti agwirizane pamawu osinthika.

IsiZulu ndi chimodzi mwazilankhulo pafupifupi 2,000 zomwe zimalankhulidwa ku Africa. Sayansi yamakono yanyalanyaza zilankhulo zambiri, koma tsopano gulu la ofufuza ochokera ku Africa likufuna kusintha izi.Kodi isiZulu ya dinosaur ndi chiyani? Momwe sayansi imanyalanyaza zilankhulo zaku Africa

Ntchito yofufuza yotchedwa Sayansi Yokongoletsa ikukonzekera kutanthauzira mapepala 180 asayansi kuchokera ku seva ya AfricArXiv preprint m'zilankhulo 6 zaku Africa: isiZulu ndi Northern Sotho ochokera kumwera kwa Africa; Hausa ndi Yoruba ochokera ku West Africa; ndi Luganda ndi Amharic ochokera ku East Africa.

Zilankhulozi zimayankhulidwa pamodzi ndi anthu pafupifupi 98 miliyoni. Kumayambiriro kwa mwezi uno, AfricArXiv adayitanitsa zokambirana kuchokera kwa olemba omwe akufuna kuti mapepala awo aganizidwe kuti amasuliridwe. Tsiku lomaliza ndi 20 August.

Mapepala omasuliridwayo adzakwaniritsa zambiri za sayansi, ukadaulo, uinjiniya ndi masamu. Ntchitoyi ikuthandizidwa ndi a Lacuna Fund, omwe amapereka ndalama kwa akatswiri ofufuza m'maiko omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa. Inayambitsidwa chaka chatha ndi othandizira zachifundo komanso aboma ochokera ku Europe ndi North America, ndi Google.

Ziyankhulo zomwe zatsalira

Kuperewera kwa mawu asayansi mzilankhulo zaku Africa kuli ndi zotulukapo zenizeni, makamaka pamaphunziro. Ku South Africa, mwachitsanzo, nzika zosakwana 10% zimayankhula Chingerezi ngati chilankhulo chawo, koma ndiye chilankhulo chachikulu pophunzitsira m'masukulu - zomwe ophunzira amati ndizopinga kuphunzira sayansi ndi masamu.

Ziyankhulo zaku Africa zikusiyidwa pakusintha kwapaintaneti, atero a Kathleen Siminyu, katswiri wazophunzira makina ndikukonza chilankhulo chachilengedwe pazilankhulo zaku Africa zomwe zili ku Kenya. “Ziyankhulo zaku Africa zimawoneka ngati zomwe mumayankhula kunyumba, osati mkalasi, zosawonekera pamalonda. Zilinso chimodzimodzi ndi sayansi, ”akutero.

Siminyu ndi gawo la Masakhane, bungwe loyambira udzu la ofufuza omwe akufuna kuti azilankhula zachilengedwe m'zilankhulo zaku Africa. Masakhane, kutanthauza kuti 'timanga pamodzi' m'Chizulu, ili ndi mamembala opitilira 400 ochokera kumayiko pafupifupi 30 pa kontrakitala. Iwo akhala akugwira ntchito limodzi kwa zaka zitatu.

Ntchito ya Decolonise Science ndi imodzi mwazinthu zambiri zomwe gululi likuchita; Zina zimaphatikizapo kuzindikira malankhulidwe achidani ku Nigeria komanso kuphunzitsa njira zophunzirira makina kuzindikira mayina ndi malo aku Africa.

Potsirizira pake, Sayansi ya Decolonise ikufuna kupanga ma glossary a pa intaneti azilankhulo zisanu ndi chimodzi, ndikuzigwiritsa ntchito kuphunzitsa njira zophunzirira makina kuti amasulire. Ofufuzawa akuyembekeza kuti amaliza ntchitoyi koyambirira kwa 2022. Koma pali cholinga chachikulu: kuchepetsa chiopsezo kuti zilankhulozi zizitha ntchito powapatsa mwayi wopezeka pa intaneti.

Kupanga mawu

Sayansi ya Decolonise idzalembetsa omasulira kuti agwiritse ntchito mapepala ochokera ku AfricArXiv omwe wolemba woyamba ndi waku Africa, atero wofufuza wamkulu a Jade Abbott, katswiri wazophunzira makina ku Johannesburg, South Africa. Mawu omwe alibe ofanana nawo mchilankhulo chomwe adzalembe adzalembetsedwa kuti akatswiri amawu ndi olankhula zasayansi apange mawu atsopano. "Sili ngati kutanthauzira buku, pomwe mawuwo akhoza kukhalapo," akutero Abbott. "Awa ndi ntchito yopanga mawu."

Koma "sitikufuna kubwera ndi mawu atsopano kwathunthu", akuwonjezera a Sibusiso Biyela, wolemba ku ScienceLink, kampani yolumikizana ndi sayansi yomwe ili ku Johannesburg yomwe imagwira nawo ntchitoyi. "Tikufuna kuti munthu amene amawerenga nkhaniyo kapena mawuwo amvetse tanthauzo la nthawi yoyamba ija kuona."

Biyela, yemwe amalemba za sayansi mu isiZulu, nthawi zambiri amatenga mawu atsopano poyang'ana mizu yachi Greek kapena Chilatini yamawu asayansi omwe alipo kale mu Chingerezi. Mwachitsanzo, pulaneti imachokera ku Chigiriki chakale mapulani, kutanthauza 'woyendayenda', chifukwa mapulaneti amadziwika kuti amayenda usiku. Mu isiZulu, izi zimakhala umhambi, zomwe zimatanthauzanso kuyendayenda. Mawu ena oti planet, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'madikishonale kusukulu, ndi malo, kutanthauza kuti 'Dziko lapansi' kapena 'dziko'. Mawu ena amafotokozera: za 'zakale', mwachitsanzo, Biyela adayambitsa mawuwo amathambo amadala kupezeka emhlabathini, kapena 'mafupa akale omwe amapezeka pansi'.

M'magawo ena asayansi, monga kafukufuku wazachilengedwe, ofufuza omwe akuyesera kuti apeze mawu oyenera adzafunika kupeza magwero olankhulidwa. A Lolie Makhubu-Badenhorst, director director ku Office Planning and Development Office ku University of KwaZulu-Natal ku Durban, akuti kusapezeka kwa mawu asayansi pamadongosolo olembedwa sizitanthauza kuti kulibe. “Wolemba wakoza, ndili pakamwa. Chidziwitso chilipo, koma sichinalembedwe bwino, ”akutero a Makhubu-Badenhorst, yemwe sali mgulu la ntchito ya Decolonise Science.

Akatswiri a termolology ya Sayansi ya Decolonise adzabwera ndi chimango chokhazikitsira mawu asayansi achiZulu, atero a Biyela. Akamaliza, adzaigwiritsa ntchito m'zilankhulo zina.

Gululi lipereka zolemba zake ngati zida zaulere kwa atolankhani komanso olankhula zasayansi, komanso mabungwe azilankhulo, mayiko ndi makampani azamaukadaulo, omwe akupereka kumasulira kwamakina. "Mukapanga teremu ndipo sigwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ena, sizingafalikire mchilankhulochi," akutero a Biyela.

Mzimayi amapanga makope ku Google Artificial Intelligence Center ku Accra, Ghana, Africa.
Google ikuyitanitsa thandizo kuti lipititse patsogolo matanthauzidwe azilankhulo zawo zaku Africa. Ndalama: Cristina Aldehuela / AFP kudzera pa Getty

Big tech: 'tikufuna thandizo lanu'

Ofufuza a Masakhane akunena kuti makampani azamaukadaulo padziko lonse lapansi amanyalanyaza zilankhulo zaku Africa, koma mzaka zaposachedwa, ayamba kupereka ndalama pofufuza.

"Tikudziwa kuti zikwizikwi za zilankhulo zaku Africa pakadali pano sizimayimiriridwa ndi pulogalamu yomasulira," watero mneneri wa Google Chilengedwe. Katswiri waukadauloyu akufuna kukulitsa Kutanthauzira kwa Google kuti iziphatikizanso zilankhulo zambiri zaku Africa, kuphatikiza Twi, Ewe, Baoulé, Bambara, Fula, Kanuri, Krio, Isoko, Luganda, Sango, Tiv ndi Urhobo, adaonjeza. Komabe, pamafunika “olankhula zinenerozi kuti atithandize kukonza zomasulira zathu” kuti athe kuphatikizidwa.

"Lingaliro lalikulu ndilo chikhalidwe cha sayansi," akufotokoza Biyela. Onsewa ndi Abbott ati ndikofunikira kuthana ndi sayansi polola anthu kuti azifufuza ndikulankhula za sayansi m'zilankhulo zawo. Pakadali pano, ndizotheka kugwiritsa ntchito zilankhulo zaku Africa polankhula za ndale komanso masewera, koma osati sayansi, atero a Biyela.

Mofananamo, Chingerezi ndiye chilankhulo chachikulu pakuwongolera zachilengedwe ndi kusamalira zachilengedwe - koma pokhapokha ngati anthu angamvetse tanthauzo la mawu ndi malingaliro ndipo atha kuyankhula za zilankhulo zawo, atha kudzimva kuti sanayanjanenso ndi boma pofuna kuteteza zachilengedwe ndi zamoyo, '' Bheka Nxele , manejala wa pulogalamu yobwezeretsa zachilengedwe, kukonza zachilengedwe ndi kuteteza nyengo ku boma la Durban ku South Africa.

Ofufuzawa ali ndi nkhawa kuti ngati zilankhulo zaku Africa siziphatikizidwa ndi ma intaneti, zitha kutha ntchito ndikuyiwalika. “Awa ndi malilime [anthu] amalankhula. Izi ndi zilankhulo zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito tsiku lililonse, ndipo amakhala nazo ndikuwona zenizeni zake mu x zaka, chilankhulo chawo chitha kukhala chakufa chifukwa palibe digito, "akutero a Siminyu.

do: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02218-x