Siyazingca ngokubonakaliswa kwi indalo kule veki, ecaleni Masakhane njengoko sisebenza 'Ukuphelisa ubuNzululwazi'.

Funda ingxelo yeli nqaku ngesiFrentshi e ecomag.fr/les-langues-africaines-pour-obtenir-plus-de-termes-scientifiques-sur-mesure-ecologie-science/

Amagama amaninzi aqhelekileyo kwinzululwazi zange abhalwe ngeelwimi zesiNtu. Ngoku, abaphandi abavela kwiAfrika iphela bayayitshintsha loo nto.

Ootitshala abaliqela kwithala leencwadi, ukufikelela kwiincwadi okanye ukufunda, kwiKholeji yoQeqesho loTitshala eFort Portal eUganda.
Abaphandi bafuna ukwandisa amagama ezenzululwazi kwiilwimi zase-Afrika kubandakanya isiLuganda, esithethwa eMpuma Afrika. Kukhethwe: abafundi-ootitshala eKampala. Ityala: Iliso Ubiquitous / Alamy

Akukho gama lantlandlolo lesiZulu elithetha idayinaso. Iintsholongwane ziyabizwa amagcisa, kodwa akukho magama ahlukeneyo kwiintsholongwane okanye kwiibhaktheriya. I-quark yile ikhwakhi (ebizwa kwa-ki); akukho binzana kutshintsho lubomvu. Kwaye abaphandi kunye nabanxibelelanisi besayensi basebenzisa olu lwimi, oluthethwa ngabantu abangaphezulu kwezigidi ezili-14 kumazantsi eAfrika, bayasokola ukuvumelana ngamagama endaleko.

IsiZulu lolunye lweelwimi ezingama-2,000 XNUMX ezithethwa eAfrika. Inzululwazi yale mihla ayikhathalelanga uninzi lwezi lwimi, kodwa ngoku iqela labaphandi abavela eAfrika bafuna ukuyitshintsha.Yintoni isiZulu sedinosaur? Indlela inzululwazi eyayihoya ngayo iilwimi zaseAfrika

Iprojekthi yophando ebizwa Isayensi yeDololonise iceba ukuguqula amaphepha enzululwazi ali-180 asuka kwiseva yoshicilelo yeAfricArXiv ayise kwiilwimi ezi-6 zesiNtu: isiZulu nesiSuthu saseMntla esivela kumazantsi e-Afrika; AmaHausa namaYoruba aseNtshona Afrika; kunye neLuganda neAmharic ezivela eMpuma Afrika.

Ezi lwimi zithethwa ngokudibeneyo ngabantu abakwizigidi ezingama-98. Kwasekuqaleni kwale nyanga, iAfricArXiv kubizelwe ukungeniswa kubabhali abanomdla wokuba amaphepha abo athathelwe ingqalelo ukuze aguqulelwe. Umhla wokugqibela yi-20 Agasti.

Amaphepha aguqulelweyo aya kuthatha uninzi lweenkalo zesayensi, itekhnoloji, ubunjineli kunye nemathematics. Le projekthi ixhaswa yiNgxowa-mali yeLacuna, ingxowa-mali yesayensi-mali yabaphandi kumazwe anengeniso ephantsi kunye naphakathi. Yaphehlelelwa kunyaka ophelileyo ngabaxhasi ngezimali kunye noorhulumente abavela eYurophu naseMntla Melika, nakwiGoogle.

Iilwimi ezishiyekileyo ngasemva

Ukunqongophala kwamagama enzululwazi kwiilwimi zesiNtu kuneziphumo zokwenyani zehlabathi, ngakumbi kwezemfundo. EMzantsi Afrika, umzekelo, bangaphantsi kwe-10% abemi abathetha isiNgesi njengolwimi lwabo lwasekhaya, kodwa lolona lwimi luphambili ekufundiseni ezikolweni - into abathi abaphengululi bangumqobo ekufundeni inzululwazi nemathematika.

Iilwimi zesiNtu zishiywa ngasemva kwi-intanethi, utshilo uKathleen Siminyu, oyingcali ekufundeni ngomatshini nasekuqhubekeni kolwimi lwendalo kwiilwimi zaseAfrika ezizinze eKenya. “Iilwimi zesiNtu zibonwa njengento oyithetha ekhaya, hayi eklasini, engabonakali kwindawo yezoshishino. Yinto enye nakwisayensi, utshilo.

ISiminyu yinxalenye yeMasakhane, umbutho oneengcambu zengca wabaphandi abanomdla kulungiselelo lwendalo ekusetyenzisweni kweelwimi zesiNtu. IMasakhane, ethetha ukuba 'sakha kunye' ngesiZulu, inamalungu angaphezu kwama-400 avela kumazwe amalunga nama-30 kweli lizwekazi. Baye basebenza kunye iminyaka emithathu.

Iprojekthi yeNzululwazi yeCololonise lelinye lamanyathelo athatyathwa leli qela; ezinye zibandakanya ukubona intetho yentiyo eNigeria kunye nokufundisa ubuchule bokufunda ngomatshini ukuqaphela amagama neendawo zaseAfrika.

Okokugqibela, iNzululwazi yeDecolonise ijolise ekwenzeni iiglosari ezifumaneka simahla kwi-intanethi kumagama enzululwazi kwiilwimi ezintandathu, kwaye uzisebenzise ukuqeqesha ii-algorithms zokufunda ngomatshini kuguqulo. Abaphandi banethemba lokuyigqiba le projekthi ekuqaleni kowama-2022. Kodwa kukho umnqweno obanzi: ukunciphisa umngcipheko wokuba ezi lwimi ziphelelwe lixesha ngokubanika indawo ethe kratya kwi-intanethi.

Ukwenziwa kwesigama

I-Decolonise Science iya kuqesha abaguquleli ukuba basebenze kumaphepha avela kwi-AfricArXiv umbhali wayo wokuqala ingumAfrika, utshilo umphandi oyintloko uJade Abbott, ingcali yokufunda ngomatshini ezinze eRhawutini, eMzantsi Afrika. Amagama angalinganiyo kulwimi ekujoliswe kulo aya kuphawulwa ukuze iingcali zesigama kunye nabo banxibelelana ngezenzululwazi baphuhlise amagama amatsha. "Akufani nokuguqulela incwadi, apho amagama anokubakho," utshilo u-Abbott. “Esi sisenzo sokwakha isigama.”

Kodwa “asifuni kuza negama elitsha ngokupheleleyo”, wongeza uSibusiso Biyela, umbhali kwiScienceLink, inkampani yezonxibelelwano kwezenzululwazi eseRhawutini eliqabane kule projekthi. Sifuna ukuba umntu ofunda eli nqaku okanye eli gama aqonde ukuba lithetha ntoni xa eqala ukulibona. ”

UBiyela, obhala ngenzululwazi ngesiZulu, uhlala ufumana amagama amatsha Ngokujonga ingcambu yesiGrike okanye yesiLatin yamagama akhoyo enzululwazi esiNgesini. Iplanethi, umzekelo, ivela kwisiGrike samandulo iceboē, elithetha 'ukujikeleza', kuba iiplanethi zibonwe ukuba zihamba esibhakabhakeni ebusuku. NgesiZulu, oku kuba umhambi, ekwathetha ukubhadula. Elinye igama leplanethi, elisetyenziswe kwizichazi-magama zesikolo, ngu umhlabaOko kuthetha ukuba 'umhlaba' okanye 'umhlaba'. Amanye amagama ayachaza: 'ifosili', umzekelo, uBiyela wayila eli binzana amathambo amadala afumaneka emhlabathini, okanye 'amathambo amadala afunyanwa emhlabeni'.

Kwezinye iinkalo zesayensi, ezinje ngophando lwezinto eziphilayo, abaphandi abazama ukufumana amagama afanelekileyo kuya kufuneka bathathe imithombo ethethiweyo. ULolie Makhubu-Badenhorst, umphathi obambeleyo weOfisi yoCwangciso noPhuhliso lweeLwimi kwiYunivesithi yaKwaZulu-Natali eThekwini, uthi ukungabikho kwegama lenzululwazi kwiiseti zedatha ebhaliweyo akuthethi ukuba alikho. Ubhalele-ndawo, ndibalulekile ngomlomo. Ulwazi lukhona, kodwa alubhalwanga kakuhle, ”utshilo uMakhubu-Badenhorst, ongeyonxalenye yeprojekthi yeDecolonise Science.

Iingcali zesigama seDecolonise yeNzululwazi ziya kuza nesikhokelo sokuphuhlisa amagama ezenzululwazi esiZulu, utsho uBiyela. Nje ukuba kugqityiwe, baya kuyisebenzisa kwezinye iilwimi.

Iqela liza kunika uluhlu lwalo lwezixhobo njengezixhobo zasimahla zeentatheli kunye nabanxibelelanisi bezenzululwazi, kunye neebhodi zeelwimi zesizwe, iiyunivesithi kunye neenkampani zetekhnoloji, eziya zisinika ukuguqulela okuzenzekelayo. “Ukuba uyila isigama kwaye ayisetyenziswa ngabanye, ayizukungena kulwimi olo,” utshilo uBiyela.

Umfazi wenza iikopi kwiziko le-Artificial Intelligence kuGoogle eAccra, eGhana, eAfrika.
UGoogle ubiza uncedo lokuphucula umgangatho weenguqulelo zeelwimi zesiNtu. Ityala: UCristina Aldehuela / AFP ngeGetty

Itekhnoloji enkulu: 'sifuna uncedo lwakho'

Abaphandi bakaMasakhane bathi iinkampani zobuchwephesha behlabathi bezingazinanzanga iilwimi zesiNtu, kodwa kule minyaka idlulileyo, sele beqalisile ukwenza uphando ngezimali kwicandelo.

"Siyazi ukuba amawaka-waka eelwimi zase-Afrika kungoku nje azimelwanga kwisoftware yokuguqulela," utshilo uSomlomo kuGoogle Uhlobo. Ingcali kwezobuchwephesha ifuna ukwandisa iToliki kaGoogle ibandakanye iilwimi ezininzi zaseAfrika, kubandakanya isiTwi, isiEwe, isiBaoulé, isiBambara, isiFula, isiKhanuri, isiKrio, isiIsoko, isiLuganda, iSango, iTiv kunye neUrhobo, bongeze. Nangona kunjalo, ifuna "izithethi zezo lwimi ukusinceda ukuphucula umgangatho weenguqulelo zethu" ukuze bakwazi ukudityaniswa nenkonzo.

Uluvo olukhulu kukuba ubunini benzululwazi yinkcubeko, utshilo uBiyela. Bobabini no-Abbott bathi kubalulekile ukucazulula inzululwazi ngokuvumela abantu ukuba benze uphando kwaye bathethe ngesayensi ngeelwimi zabo. Okwangoku, kunokwenzeka ukuba kusetyenziswe iilwimi zesiNtu ukuthetha ngezopolitiko kunye nemidlalo, kodwa hayi inzululwazi, utsho uBiyela.

Kwangokunjalo, isiNgesi lolona lwimi luphambili kulawulo lwendalo esingqongileyo kunye nolondolozo - kodwa ngaphandle kokuba abantu baqonde intsingiselo yamagama athile kunye neengcinga kwaye banokuthetha ngazo kwiilwimi zabo zasekhaya, banokuziva behlukanisiwe kwimizamo karhulumente yokulondolozwa kwendalo kunye neentlobo, utsho uBawo Nxele. umphathi wenkqubo yokubuyisela indalo, ucwangciso lokusingqongileyo kunye nokukhuselwa kwemozulu kumasipala waseThekwini woMzantsi Afrika.

Abaphandi banenkxalabo yokuba ukuba iilwimi zesiNtu azifakwanga kwi-online algorithms, banokuthi, ekugqibeleni, baphelelwe lixesha balibaleke. “Ezi ziilwimi [abantu] abazithethayo. Ezi ziilwimi abazisebenzisa mihla le, kwaye bahlala nazo kwaye babona ubunyani bokuthi in x iminyaka, ulwimi lwabo lunokuba lufile kuba akukho manyathelo edijithali, utshilo uSiminyu.

ikhonkco: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02218-x