Le bhlog-iposwe ngeposi ukusuka ASAPbio kwaye iphinde isetyenziswe phantsi Ilayisensi ye-CC-BY 4.0. Nceda ufake naziphi na izimvo kunye neenkcazo malunga neposti yokuqala asapbio.org/force2019-preprints-vision-dinner.

Ukulandela ingxoxo yephaneli malunga "Ngubani oza kuba nefuthe kwimpumelelo ye-biology kwinto yokuqala ukuya kuthi ga?" YOBONWELEKILEYO ka-2019 (isishwankathelo Apha), saqhubeka nengxoxo ngesidlo sangokuhlwa kunye neepaneli kunye nabanye ababandakanyekayo ekuhlaleni:

Kwitheyibhile 1:

  • U-Emmy Tsang (umncedisi), uLife
  • I-Theo Bloom, BMJ kunye ne-medRxiv
  • UAndrea Chiarelli, uMcebisi woPhando
  • Scott Edmunds, GigaScience
  • I-Amye Kenall, Imvelo yeSpringer
  • Fiona Murphy, umcebisi ozimeleyo
  • UMichael Parkin, eYurophu PMC, EMBL-EBI
  • UAlex Wade, iChan Zuckerberg Initiative

Kwitheyibhile 2:

  • UNaomi Penfold (umququzeleli), ASAPbio
  • UJuan Pablo Alperin, uScholCommLab / iProjekti yoLwazi lwePaplick
  • UHumberto Dheat, iZiko leSizwe leTekhnoloji yezoLimo (eArgentina)
  • UJo havemann, weAfrikaArXiv
  • UMaria Levchenko, eYurophu PMC, EMBL-EBI
  • U-Lucia Loffreda, uNxibelelwano loPhando
  • UClaire Rawlinson, BMJ kunye ne-medRxiv
  • UDario Taraborelli, iChan Zuckerberg Initiative

Ukujongana neminye imicimbi enamaqhinga njengeqela elinembono eyahlukileyo, sixubushe ngeengxelo ezintlanu zabantu abazahluleleyo malunga nokusebenza okanye ukungasebenzi. Itheyibhile kaEmmy kuxoxiwe:

  • Inqanaba lokutshekishwa kokuhlela kunye / okanye uphononongo loontanga olwenziweyo kufuneka lubhengezwe ngokucacileyo kwindawo yokufikelela kumshicilela.
  • Imele isoloko isimahla sombhali ukuthumela iprinta
  • Izinto zokuprinta akufuneki zisetyenziselwe ukumisela izinto eziza kuqala
  • Iiseva ezingaphambi kwexesha kufuneka zibe zi-agnostic zokuphakama kunye nezixhobo ezantsi kunye neenkqubo

Ngeli xesha itafile kaNahomi (efanekiselwe ngentla) ixoxa "iiseva zamalungelo okushicilela akufuneki zixhaswe ngabaxhasi bophando kunye nabenzi bemigaqo-nkqubo ngaphandle kokuba babonisa ulawulo loluntu", ngaphambi kokutshintsha imibono eyahlukeneyo yokuba yeyiphi na imigaqo.

Isiteyithisi seNdoda-1: Inqanaba lokutshekishwa kokuhlelwa kunye / okanye uphononongo loontanga ukuba iprrint igqithileyo kufuneka lwaziswe ekuhleni kwindawo yokufikelela kumcimbi wokuqala.

Ngelixa sasivume ngokubanzi ukuba ukujonga okuhleliweyo kunye nokunye ukuphononongwa okwenziwe kwiprinta kufanelekile ukuba kwaziswe ekuhleni, sakhawuleze saqonda ukuba sinemibono eyahlukeneyo yokucacisa okuthethwa kwesi sihloko. Kubalulekile ukuba sithathe iimfuno zabafundi kunye namava ukuba siwaqwalasele: umphandi oKhangela ekhompyutheni unokufuna nje ukwazi inqanaba lokukhangela ubungqina bokuba (akukho nanye? Ukujonga kwangaphambili ukuthotyelwa kwemigaqo yokuziphatha kunye nomthetho kunye nesayensi Ukuhambelana? Inqanaba elithile lokuphononongwa ngoontanga okunzulu?), ngelixa umphandi osele engene nzulu kweso sihloko sophando okanye indlela unokufumana uluvo lokuphononongwa koontanga kunye nembali yenguqulo ziluncedo. Olunye ulwazi olufana nokubuyiswa, kufuneka lwaziwe ngokukuko kubo bonke abafundi. Ukulungiswa okusebenzayo, kuya kubaluleka kakhulu ukuba ulwazi ekutshekishengeni kunye nokujonga kwakhona kuthathwe ngokufanelekileyo kusetyenziswa ischema esichazwe kakuhle nesavunyelwayo. Kodwa ingafumaneka njani idatha eloluhlobo kwiiseva ezisasaziweyo? Uphononongo loontanga kunye neenkqubo zokuhlela kule mihla zahluka kakhulu phakathi kwejenali kunye neseva zamalungelo okushicilela, ke ukuya kuthi ga ngoku singazicwangcisa njani ezi nkqubo?

Isiteyimenti se-Straw-man 2: Kuya kuhlala kusimahla ukuba umbhali athumele iprrint.

Sivumelane ngamxhelo-mnye ukuba amalungelo okushicilela makabesimahla kwinqanaba lokusebenzisa.

Isiteyithisi sendoda esisi-3: Izinto zokuprinta akufuneki zisetyenziselwe ukumisela izinto eziza kuqala.

Ngokufanelekileyo, ugxininiso ekufumanisekeni akufuneki lubalule, kodwa siye saqonda ukuba, kwimeko yophando ekhoyo ngoku, lo mbandela kufuneka uqwalaselwe. Nje ukuba ukushicilelwa kupapashwe kwindawo kawonkewonke, ukubeka phambili umsebenzi wezenzululwazi kuchazwe kwangaphambili. Siyavuma ukuba izixhobo zangoku zomthetho zinokungahambelani noku: umzekelo, umthetho welungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza wase-US useka ukubeka phambili ngokubaluleka ekufakeni isicelo selungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza, kunye nakuphi na ukubhengezwa esidlangalaleni- ngentlanganiso okanye intlanganiso engekho sesikweni - inokukujongela phantsi oku. Ukuqwalaselwa ngakumbi kunye nokucacisa kuyadingeka malunga nendlela yokuthumela iiprrints zamabango aphambili kunye nokuba kuthetha ntoni ukufunyanwa kunye nepropathi enengqondo.

Isitayile se-Straw-man 4: Iiseva zokulandelwa kwangaphambili kufuneka zibe zi-agnostic zokunyuka nokunyuka kwezixhobo kunye neenkqubo.

Ukuze usebenzise ubuchule bokuqala kumandla abo apheleleyo, sicinga ukuba iiseva zamalungelo okushicilela kufuneka zihambelane kwaye zisebenzisane kunye nezixhobo ezikhuphukayo nezisezantsi, isoftware kunye namaqabane, kwaye ngaxeshanye zingakhathalelwanga kulwazi okanye izikhombisi ngokubhekisele kwimisebenzi evelayo, imigangatho yoluntu nokunye. Umzekelo, iinkqubo eziphezulu zokuthimba kunye nokujika imethadata kunokuba luncedo ekufumaneni. Iiseva eziphambili zomphakathi zinokucebisa ngezona ndlela zilungileyo zokuhamba komsebenzi osezantsi, ukongeza ixabiso lomsebenzi kunye nokwenza lula ukuphinda usebenzise kunye nokunye ukwenza igalelo.

Isiteyithisi se-Straw-man 5: Iiseva ezihamba phambili akufuneki zixhaswe ngabaxhasi bophando kunye nabenzi bemigaqo-nkqubo ngaphandle kokuba babonisa ulawulo loluntu.

Sithetha ukuthini ngolawulo lwabahlali kwaye kutheni le nto ibalulekile?

Sixoxe ukuba eyona nto iphambili ekuqhubeleni phambili kweziseko zophuhliso ezikhokelwa luluntu kukucutha amathuba okuba iimfuno zorhwebo zibekwe phambili ngenxa yesibonelelo, njengoko kwenzekile ngelahleko yobunini kunye nokufikelela kwimibhalo ebhaliweyo ehlaziyiweyo yoontanga (ngokudityaniswa) kwinzuzo eyimfuneko yabapapashi bezentengiso. Apha, sinokubuza: ngaba iimfuno zorhwebo zibekwe phambili ngenjongo yokwabelana ngolwazi kunye nokuququzelela intetho, kwaye singakuqinisekisa njani ukuba oku akunjalo kwimeko yamaseva angaphambili?

Ngaphandle kokuqhuba kwezorhwebo, sivume ukuba ababoneleli ngeenkonzo / ababonelela ngezinto zokusebenza (abashicileli, itekhnoloji) benza inkqubo kunye nokukhethwa kokuyila okuchaphazela ukusebenza komsebenzisi. Oku akuzange kuphakanyiswe njengokugxeka- endaweni yoko, uninzi lwethu lwavuma ukuba indlela yokuziphatha kwabaphandi abathile ihlala isikhokelwa ikakhulu kwiimfuno zabo kwangoko kwaye bangazuzi inzuzo ezidityanelweyo, ngenxa yenxalenye yoxinzelelo kunye nezithintelo zommandla abasebenza ngaphakathi kuwo. Abantu abasebenza ekushicileleni imibutho bazisa izakhono zobuchule kunye nolwazi ekunikeni ingxelo yesayensi ehambelana nabahleli bezemfundo, abavavanyi kunye nababhali. Umbuzo kukuba uqinisekisa njani inkqubo kunye nokhetho loyilo luhambelana noko kuya kulungiselela ngokukhawuleza imfundo.

Sixoxile ukuba akukho namnye umntu ochaphazelekayo onokuthi abonise ezona nzululwazi zibalulekileyo, kwaye akukho mbono ubonakalayo kwindlela onokuyiphumeza ngayo. Ngaba ukuqhubela phambili ukukhula kweseva ethile kulukhuthazo kuluntu luphela? Okanye ngaba zonke izigqibo kufuneka zenziwe ngenjongo yomanyano? Ngowuphi umxholo esifanele siqwalasele kuwo, kwaye sazi njani ukuba ngubani esimele simthembe? Yenzeka njani into yokuba iqela ngalinye lithathe izigqibo? Sibuze le mibuzo ngokuqonda okwabelwanayo ukuba uninzi lwejenali lisebenza ngokusebenzisana phakathi kwamalungu ezifundo zoluntu kunye nabapapashi, nokuba ezinye iiseva zangaphambili (ezinje nge-bioRxiv) zisebenza kwimigca efanayo. Nangona kunjalo, nokuba isebenza njani kwaye ayisebenzi elubala, kwaye ukungabikho elubala kungangumba ophambili xa kusiziwa ukuthembela ukuba izigqibo zizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zidibeneyo. Ukushiya isigqibo sokuba ngubani oza kuthembela kubaxhasi okanye abaqulunqi bomgaqo-nkqubo akunakubonakalisa oko kufunwa luluntu ngokubanzi, nokuba.

Ke, zinokuthi zenziwe njani izigqibo kwiseva yendawo yokuqala ngendlela enokuthenjwa luluntu ngokubanzi? Sijonge kweminye imizekelo yolawulo olukhokelwa luluntu-nokuba loluluntu olunoluvo kwizigqibo okanye ukubanakho ukubabamba benze izigqibo, ingakumbi ukumodareyitha naziphi na izigqibo ezichatshazelwa yimidla yorhwebo. Enye indlela kukusebenzisa isicelo esivulekileyo malunga nezimvo (i-RFC; umzekelo, yabona https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Requests_for_comment) ukuze nabani na akwazi ukubonelela ngegalelo. Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kubekho inkqubo ebonakalayo nenobulungisa yokuthatha isigqibo sokuba ngubani na igalelo lenziwe, kunye nokuqonda ukuba ezo nkqubo aziqinisekisi ziphumo ezingcono. Ngenye indlela, iiprojekthi zinokusebenzisa indibaniselwano yeendlela zokumamela abathathi-nxaxheba abahlukeneyo: umzekelo, iqela eliseYurophu ye-PMC imamela abasebenzisi ngokusebenzisa uphando lwemveliso, kubahlohli ngokusebenzisa ibhodi yeengcebiso kwezesayensi, kunye nakwabo benza imigaqo-nkqubo ngokubambisana kwabaxhasi. Le nkqubo yokugqibela inokunikezela ngenkqubo yokwenza izigqibo engagungqiyo, ingakhokelwa lula ngumntu omnye ochaphazelekayo (njengaye nabani na omele umgca ophantsi wezorhwebo), kodwa inokuba yindleko ngokwezixhobo zolawulo.

Ukuziphatha komsebenzisi kuchatshazelwa zizigqibo zentlalo nezobuchwephesha ezenziwe kwinqanaba leziseko zophuhliso, ke indlela eqhutywa ngayo iseva, kwaye ngubani, oya kuthi afake igalelo kumbono wakhe wezinto ezizezokuqala kwibhayiloji ekugqibeleni oya kuthi udlale ngokwenyani. I Ingxoxo iyaqhubeka kwi-intanethi emva kwesidlo sethu sangokuhlwa.

Ngaba singawusungula umbono owabiwayo wezinto eziphambili kwibhayoloji?

Amava ethu, amanqanaba olwazi kunye neenqobo ezisemgangathweni zonke zinefuthe kwinto nganye esiyibonayo ukuba ibe yiyo kwaye ibe yile: ukusuka ekuncedeni iziphumo ukuze kwabelwane ngazo ngexesha elifanelekileyo, ukuphazamisa ishishini lokushicilela elikhoyo ngoku.

Itheyibhuli ka-Emmy ixoxe ngendlela ukudideka okubandakanya into ethile (kwaye yintoni engenzi) kubangela ubunzima xa kuphuhliswa izixhobo, imigaqo-nkqubo kunye nezibonelelo zazo. Ngamatyala ahlukeneyo okusetyenziselwa izinto zokushicilela, nalapho abantu banokuthi bafune ukwabelana ngeziphumo ezahlukeneyo zophando, kuphakanyisiwe ukuba kuncitshiswe inkcazo yemibhalo-ngqangi kunye "nemibhalo ebhaliweyo elungiselelwe ushicilelo lwejenali" inokunceda lula uphuhliso lobuchwephesha, unxibelelwano nomsebenzi wokubhengeza. Iiseva ezingaphambi kwexesha ziya kuba nenjongo eyodwa yezindlu kunye nokusebenza kuqala. Oku akunakuthimba zonke iimeko zokusetyenziswa, kodwa kubonwe njengezentengiselwano ezixabisekileyo zokwandisa ukwamkelwa ngalo mzuzu ngexesha. Nangona kunjalo, kwitafile kaNahomi, sicebisile ukuba kunokuba luncedo ekuhleni ekubonakaleni ngakumbi kunye / okanye imibono eyandisiweyo yotshintsho, ukunqanda inkqubela phambili xa ukwamkelwa kwale nkcazo yenziwe lula.

Okubalulekileyo, sixoxe ngezinto ezisixhalabeleyo malunga nokubeka kwangaphambili, ngamanye amaxesha ukubona iimeko esingafuni ukuzibona

  • Izilumkiso zisenokungahlali zikhululekile ukuthumela nokufunda, kuxhomekeka kwimodeli yezemali esetyenzisiweyo ukugcina iindleko zeziseko zakwangoko - bekukho ilizwi lesilumkiso malunga nendlela intshukumo yokuvula ukufikelela e-US naseYurophu okwangoku isenza ukusetyenziswa kwenqaku. Ukuhlawula iindleko (ii-APC) ukuhlawulela ukufikelela okuvulekileyo. Le isenokuba yindlela ahlawulwa ngayo amalungelo okurhweba ngaphandle kokuba ezinye iinketho, ezinje ngenkxaso ethe ngqo ngabaxhasi kunye namaziko (umzekelo, kusetyenziswa amathala eencwadi).
  • Ngamalungelo okushicilela afumaneka esidlangalaleni, kuya kuthiwani ukuba akuqondwa kakuhle okanye akachazwa kakuhle? Kuthekani ukuba isayensi engachanekanga isasazeka njenge "ndaba ezingeyonyani"? Sixoxe ngendlela amanye amaqela abaguli akwaziyo ukugxeka uncwadi ngaphandle kwemfundo yesayensi esesikweni nokuba uphononongo lontanga aluqinisekisi ukuchaneka. Ukubonelela abafundi ekuhleni nangolwazi malunga nokuba umsebenzi uphononongiwe zezinye iingcali kunokuba luncedo na.
  • Iiprinta azinakuphazamisa ukufunda - sinokuqhubeka nokusebenza kwilizwe apho ukufikelela ngokukhawuleza, okuvulekileyo, okulinganayo kwimveliso nasekusetyenzisweni kolwazi kungakhange kulungiselelwe. Oku kunokubonwa namhlanje kusetyenziswa ukumisela kwangaphambili ukwenza ibango eliphambili lokufunyanwa ngaphandle kokubandakanya ukufikelela kugcino lwangaphantsi, kunye nokuthathwa koshicilelo-oluhlaziyiweyo lwentatheli apho ababhali banokubonisa ukuba baligqithile inqanaba lokuhlawulela iijenali zeenqaku ngeempapasho eziphezulu. .
  • Amaqonga abapapashi banokuthi bavelise-ngaphakathi, njengababhali befaka iprrint kwiqonga labo kwaye bayalelwa ukuba bahlale ngaphakathi komjelo wokuphononongwa kontanga.
  • Sithethile ngokufutshane malunga nokusetyenziswa kwemithombo evulekileyo yokuvelisa inzuzo: ngaba amalungelo okushicilela afuna ukukhuselwa ekuxhaphazeni kurhwebo kusetyenziswa amagatya alayisenisi, njengokwabelana ngokufanayo (-SA)? Mhlawumbi akunjalo: ukuvelisa inzuzo kwizibonelelo ezivulekileyo akunakuba yingxaki, lo gama nje uluntu luvuma ukuba izibonelelo zokuvula ngokuvulekileyo ziyaqhubeka zikhangelela nakuphi na ukuxhaphaza, njengoko kungoku nje kubonakala kunjalo kwiWikipedia.

Ke besifuna ukubona ukuba kwenzeke ntoni? Sigqibe ngokwabelana ngemibono yethu yangaphambi kokumiselweyo, kubandakanya:

  • Eyona ndawo iphambili yokusasazwa kophando, ngendlela eyiyo, ekhululekile kubabhali nakubafundi, kwaye kuqhubekeka uphononongo lontanga. Olu hlaziyo loontanga lunokulungelelaniswa noluntu; kunokuba yinto esebenzayo ngakumbi kunye nexesha xa oku kufuneka, umzekelo ngexesha lokuqhambuka kwesifo. Ukungqinisisa kunye nokungqinisisa kweprint kunokuthi kuguquke ngokuhamba kwexesha, kwaye uguqulelo lwenza ukuba imbali epheleleyo ingaphicothwa.
  • Ushicilelo olusekuhleni lwentetho yesayensi engumthombo wokufunda owamkelweyo kunye / okanye nezinto ezithandwayo, ngaphakathi koqeqesho (umzekelo, indlela efanelekileyo yokusebenzisa amanani kuseto lolingo) okanye ngakumbi ngokubanzi (umzekelo, indlela eyakhayo Umvavanyi woontanga kunye nombhali onoxanduva).
  • Ukuxhasa inkqubela phambili ngokukhawuleza nangcono kwezamayeza, ngakumbi kwilizwe apho abaguli baphucule ubomi babo ngokutshabalalisa itekhnoloji yonyango (umz. #WeAreNotWaiting) okanye abonise ubungqina (bo) kliniki yabo kuncwadi.
  • Isithuthi apho abaphandi banokuthi banxibelelane kwaye babandakanye nabanye ababukeli (abaguli, abaqulunqi bomgaqo-nkqubo), kwaye bafunde ukwenza le nto kakuhle.
  • Indlela yokuvelisa ulwazi kunye nokusetyenziswa ukuze ilingane kwaye ibandakanywe, umzekelo ngokwandisa ukubonakala kwabaphandi kwihlabathi liphela (njengoko iAfrikaArXiv kunye nabanye besenzela abaphandi base-Afrika okanye abavela e-Afrika).
  • Isithuthi esimalunga nentetho enganyanzelekanga ukuba khona kwabantu kwiinkomfa, ukunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kohambo ngenqwelomoya nokuphepha ukubekelwa ecaleni ngenxa yeendleko, imiba yeVisa kunye nezinye izinto ezingafakwanga.

Ukuya phambili, iingcebiso zaziza kubandakanya amazwi ahlukeneyo kwingxoxo, ukubonelela ngakumbi ngobunkokeli bokucinga, ukuphucula umbono wokuvumelana kwikamva lokuqala, ukuphuhlisa izikhokelo ezilungileyo kakhulu zeseva zangaphambili, kunye nokunika abasebenzisi ulwazi olwaneleyo kunye nokucaca ukubanceda bakhethe (ngentshukumo) ikamva abanqwenela ukulibona.

Liyintoni ikamva onqwenela ukulibona? Sikumema ukuba uthethe ngale nto kunye noogxa bakho kwaye ushiye uluvo malunga uhlobo lwentsusa lwale post.


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