Ukuthola Ulwazi Lokucwaninga e-Afrika

Kushicilelwe ngu Joy Owango on

Ngaphakathi kweSayensi yeDijithali uchungechunge lwebhulogi ocwaningweni oluphathelene ne-SDG, ilungu lethu lebhodi elelulekayo, uJoy Owango, wabhala nge-SDG 4, imfundo esezingeni.

Funda i-athikili yokuqala ku- digital-science.com/blog/perspectives/sdg-series-accessing-research_info-in-africa/

Joy Owango, umqondisi ku- I-TCC Africa

Ukuthola Ulwazi Lokucwaninga e-Afrika

Eminyakeni embalwa edlule, lapho ngisebenza ngathola iziqu zami zokuphothula izifundo zokufundisa eMass Communication, ngikhumbula kahle ubunzima bokuthi ngithole amaphepha okucwaninga afanelekile ezabelweni zami. Ngazizwa ngikhungathekile ukuthi okuwukuphela kwendawo engangena kuyo la maphepha kwakuwumtapo wezincwadi wesikhungo sezokuphenya eNairobi. Bengihlala ngaphandle komtapo wezincwadi ngemuva kokuba uvaliwe, ukuze ngifinyelele izinsiza kusebenza ze-e-WiFi zazo. Ngaleso sikhathi, ngangicabanga ukuthi lokho kwakuyinto ejwayelekile - ingxenye yomzabalazo wokwenza iziqu zobudokotela. Akubanga yiminyaka eyishumi kamuva lapho ngathola khona ngokunyakaza kwe-Open Access. Ukuvula iso! Omunye walabo “bengingazi ngani ngalokhu?” izikhathi.

Enye yezinto ezikhungathekisa kakhulu (futhi, ake sibhekane nayo, icaphuna umngcele!) Zocwaningo ukuzama ukufinyelela ezincwadini ezifanele zemfundo, kodwa ukuthola ukuthi azitholakali. Le akuyona inkinga entsha. Ama-paywall abedumile ekushicilelweni kwezifundo. Uma ubheka i-Afrika, inyuvesi ejwayelekile ayinakukwazi ukufinyelela kuma-e -ource ukwenza ucwaningo futhi ikhawulelwe kwimininingwane enikelwe ngabashicileli kanye nabalingani bezimboni zocwaningo. Ngeshwa, enye le datha ayikho kuze kube manje, ngakho-ke kukhona umkhawulo ekutholeni ulwazi lwezinqubo zakamuva zocwaningo.

Ukunqoba Izinselele Ngokusebenzisana

Ngaphandle kwalezi zinselelo, iningi lamazwe asezansi kweSahara ahlangane ndawonye ukudala i umtapo wezincwadi esekela imiphakathi yabo efundayo neyokucwaninga. Baxoxisana nabashicileli kanye nabalingani bezimboni yocwaningo ukuze bakwazi ukuthola izinsiza zokuthola ucwaningo. Kodwa-ke, ngaphandle kokuba khona kwale nhlangano yomtapo wolwazi, nangaphandle kweSouth African National Library and Information Consortia, iningi lisazabalaza ukuthola imininingwane ewusizo, kodwa ebizayo, yokuthola ucwaningo. INingizimu Afrika njengengqayizivele akumangazi njengoba, ngokusho kwe-UNESCO Institute for Statistics ka-2018, isebenzise u-6.16% we-GDP yayo kwezemfundo - izindleko ezinkulu qhathanisa namanye amazwe amaningi ase-Afrika.

Uma kuqhathaniswa, abahlanganisi bemtapo wolwazi eYurophu bayakwazi ukuza nezivumelwano zokufinyelela okuvulekile kwe-Open ukufinyelela, okufana neProjekt DEAL eJalimane, okudala ukubambisana neSpringer Nature okuholele ekufinyeleleni izindatshana ezikhokhelwayo kanye nokushicilelwa kwe-Open Access kubacwaningi baseJalimane ngenkokhelo eyodwa. Ngokwesivumelwano, abacwaningi ezikhungweni zeProjekt DEAL bazokwazi ukushicilela emaphephandabeni emvelo angaba ngu-1,900 nge- $ 2,750 (noma cishe ama- $ 3,000) ngephepha ngalinye. Le mali iphezulu ngokungavunyelwe futhi nakanjani ayibizi kumhalali wezincwadi wase-Afrika.

Ezemfundo Ephakeme kanye ne-SDG 4

Umgomo wesine wokuthuthuka okungagcineki we-UN ungazisiza kanjani izinguquko ezinhle kule ndawo? I-SDG4 inezinjongo ezilandelayo:

  • Ngo-2030, uqinisekise ukuthi yonke intsha kanye nenxenye enkulu yabantu abadala, abesilisa nabesifazane, bathola ulwazi lokufunda nokubhala kanye nokubala
  • Ngo-2030, uqinisekise ukuthi bonke abafundi bathola ulwazi namakhono adingekayo ukukhuthaza intuthuko esimeme, kubandakanya, phakathi kokunye, ngemfundo yentuthuko esimeme nendlela yokuphila esimeme, amalungelo abantu, ukulingana ngokobulili, ukukhuthaza isiko lokuthula nokungabi nodlame, emhlabeni jikelele ukuba yisakhamuzi nokwazisa ngokwahlukahluka kwamasiko kanye negalelo lesiko ekuthuthukisweni okuzinzileyo

Ngokusho the Umbiko Wezomnotho wase-Afrika wangonyaka we-2020 yiBhange Lezentuthuko lase-Afrika, lingaphansi kwe-10% labantu abaseminyakeni engama-25 nangaphezulu abanemfundo yaseyunivesithi emazweni amaningi ase-Afrika.

Lokhu kulindeleke. Izinhlelo zangemva kokuthweswa iziqu azishibhile, kubiza phakathi kwama- $ 4,000 kuya ku- $ 18,000, kuya ngezifundo kanye neyunivesithi. Iningi labafundi abathola iziqu zabo bayazisekela futhi bathambekele ekusebenzeni nezifundo zabo. Ukukhokhela ukufinyelela kokushicilelwa okukhokhelwayo akwenzeki, futhi kungenzeka kube yisizathu sokukhathazeka kwabafundi abaningi, njengokufinyelela okulinganiselwe kweziphoqelela zabafundi ukuthola imininingwane etholakalayo kunaleyo efanele kakhulu.

Izitshudeni ezixhaswe ngemuva kokuthweswa iziqu zivame ukuba nenhlanhla enkulu, ngoba iningi labaxhasi bazo liyakwazi ukukhokhela ukufinyelela kwizinsizakusebenza ezidingekayo zokucwaninga, nangokuthi umbhali acubungula izindleko ezidingekayo zokushicilela ucwaningo lwabo. Umphumela uba dichotomy wabacwaningi phakathi kwalezo ezixhaswe iziqu zabafundi kanye nalezo ezingekho. I-Open Access ingakunciphisa lokhu kungalingani, iqinisekise ukuthi abafundi bathola imfundo engcono kakhulu, nokuthi futhi ayinqunyelwe ngokuqokwa ngokukhethwa kwamajenali ezifundo amakhampasi abo akwazi ukukunikeza ukufinyelela, noma ngabe axhaswa ngemali noma cha.

Ukunciphisa Ukungalingani Ekutholeni Imininingwane Yocwaningo

Imininingwane yocwaningo lwe-Open Access iyakwazi ukwenza intando yeningi ifinyeleleke ngokuhlinzekela izinsiza ezilinganayo kubafundi nakwabaphenyi. Imvelo ejwayelekile yezifundo nokucwaninga ifaka ukusekelwa kwengqalasizinda kanye namandla abantu. I-glue ebamba lokhu ndawonye iyidatha. Ikakhulu, idatha ye-Open Access inika amandla ekukhuliseni ikhwalithi yokuphuma kocwaningo ekhiqizwa ngokunikeza imininingwane eyengeziwe ocwaningweni olukhona. Abaphenyi bayakwazi ukugwema ukuphindwa komsebenzi. Bayakwazi ukukhulisa ukubonakala kwabo kanye nomthelela wokufunda ngokubalukelwa. Ucwaningo lwabo kwabelwane kalula ngalo. Okubaluleke kakhulu, uma idatha itholakala njengokuvuleleka okuvulekile, ukumba umbhalo kulula.

Izisusa Zokuthuthuka

Ngo-2007 iNhlangano Yezizwe zase-Afrika yagunyaza ukuthi amazwe ase-Afrika kumele asebenzise okungenani i-1% le-GDP yabo kuCwaningo Nentuthuko (R&D). Lokhu bekuyingxenye ye Isayensi, Ubuchwepheshe kanye necebo Lokusungula i-Afrika (STISA-2024) kwethulwa obheka ikusasa le-Afrika ukugqugquzela futhi kuphendule amathuba wokukhushulwa kwezimali zesayensi, ubuchwepheshe kanye nokuqamba (i-STI) ezwenikazi lonke. Ekupheleni kosuku, izinsiza (ezezimali, ezinomusa nezomuntu) zizonquma impumelelo ye-STISA-2024, kanye ne-STI nentuthuko yezimboni ezwenikazi. Ngenkathi ngibona ukubaluleka kokusekelwa kwamanye amazwe kanye nokutshala imali ngqo emazweni angaphandle, izinga lezimali zase-Afrika kanye nezimali ezisekela izinsizakusebenza zezimali kuzocacisa ubungako bokuthi ubunikazi base-Afrika bokuthuthuka kwe-STI futhi, ngenxa yalokho, izinkomba zokuthuthuka kwezenhlalo nakwezomnotho ezwenikazi ezwenikazi lonke (Umbiko we-STISA 2019).

Lo msebenzi uholele emazweni ase-Afrika angama-15 ukuzibophezela ukusebenzisa okungenani i-1% le-GDP yawo kwi-R&D. Lawa mazwe ayingxenye ye I-Science Granting Council Council Initiative inhloso yawo efanayo ukukhuthaza isayensi nedatha evulekile emazweni abo. Inhlangano yamanyuvesi ase-Afrika, isigungu se-izambulela zazo zonke izikhungo zemfundo yase-Afrika, izibophezele ngokufanayo ukukhuthaza isayensi nedatha evulekile njengendlela yokwandisa umphumela wokucwaninga wase-Afrika nokwenza ngcono ukubonakala kwayo.

NgoSepthemba 2019, i-Ethiopia yathatha a inqubomgomo kazwelonke yokufinyelela okuvulekile ezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme. Ngaphezu kokuphoqa ukufinyelela okuvulekile kokushicilelwa nedatha, inqubomgomo entsha ikhuthaze izindlela zesayensi ezivulekile ngokufaka 'ukuvuleka' njengenye yezindlela zokuhlola nokuhlola iziphakamiso zocwaningo. Lokhu kwenza kube izwe lokuqala lase-Afrika ukuba libe nenqubomgomo yokufinyelela evulekile, egunyaza Ukufinyelela Okuvulekile kuzo zonke izihloko ezishicilelwe, amatheksthi, izichasiselo nedatha evela ocwaningweni oluxhaswe ngemali esidlangalaleni olwenziwe ngabasebenzi nakubafundi emanyuvesi aqhutshwa nguMnyango Wezesayensi kanye Imfundo Ephakeme - amanyuvesi angaphezu kwama-47 akhiwe kulo lonke elase-Ethiopia.

Bheka Phambili

I-Afrika igqugquzela ukushicilelwa okuvulelekile kwezemfundo i-Open Access ngokusebenzisa i-African Academy of Science (AAS), enoHlelo Olucwaningayo Oluvulekile ngokubambisana neFakhalthi eyi-1000 (F1000). Izinhlangano ezinjenge Ucwaningo4Life (i-Digital Science esekela ukufinyelela kuyo Ubukhulu) futhi ihlinzeke ukufinyelela olwazini lokucwaninga, kanti i-TCC Africa iyaqhubeka nokuxhasa abacwaningi ngokwakha ukuzethemba kwabo nolwazi lokuthola ulwazi lokufinyelela ocwaningweni. Inikeza isiteji sokushicilelwa okusheshayo kanye nokubuyekezwa kontanga okuvulekile kwabacwaningi abasekelwa yi-AAS nezinhlelo ezisekelwa ngeplatifomu yayo yokuxhasa ngezimali, i-Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa. I-Afrika futhi inendawo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Open Access I-AfricaArxiv, yemukela ukuthunyelwa kwezifundo ezivela kubacwaningi base-Afrika nanoma ngubani owenza ucwaningo e-Afrika.

Lezi zinqubekela phambili kwisayensi evulekile zisiza ukuthuthukisa ikhwalithi yemfundo nase-Afrika, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu zinikeza abacwaningi base-Afrika izinga elikhulayo lokuzimela ocwaningweni lwabo. Ngokugxila ekuhlangabezaneni nalezi zinhloso ze-SDG, sinethemba lokuthi abacwaningi base-Afrika, kanye nomphakathi wokucwaninga womhlaba, bazohlomula ngokufinyelela okulinganayo kwemininingwane yocwaningo, ngakhoke ucwaningo olungcono.


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