Siyaziqhenya ngokufakwa ku- Nature kuleli sonto, eceleni Masakhane njengoba sisebenza ku 'Ukuqeda isayensi'.

Funda inguqulo yale ndatshana ngesiFulentshi ku ecomag.fr/les-langues-africaines-pour-obtenir-plus-de-termes-scientifiques-sur-mesure-ecologie-science/

Amagama amaningi ajwayelekile kwisayensi awakaze abhalwe ngezilimi zase-Afrika. Manje, abacwaningi abavela kulo lonke elase-Afrika bayakushintsha lokho.

Baningana othisha babafundi emtatsheni wezincwadi, abafinyelela ezincwadini noma abafundayo, eFort Portal Teacher Training College e-Uganda.
Abaphenyi bafuna ukunweba amagama esayensi ngezilimi zase-Afrika kubalwa isiLuganda, esikhulunywa eMpumalanga Afrika. Kuboniswe: abafundi-othisha eKampala. Isikweletu: Eye Ubiquitous / Alamy

Alikho igama loqobo lesiZulu elisho dinosaur. Kubizwa amagciwane amagcisa, kepha awekho amagama ahlukile ngamagciwane noma amabhaktheriya. I-quark ithi ikhwakhi (kubizwe kwa-ki); alikho igama lokushintsha okubomvu. Futhi abacwaningi nabaxhumanisi besayensi abasebenzisa lolu limi, olukhulunywa ngabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-14 eningizimu ye-Afrika, bakuthola kunzima ukuvumelana ngamagama okuziphendukela kwemvelo.

IsiZulu singesinye sezilimi ezingaba ngu-2,000 XNUMX ezikhulunywa e-Afrika. Isayensi yesimanje ayinaki ubuningi balezi zilimi, kepha manje iqembu labaphenyi abavela e-Afrika lifuna ukukushintsha lokho.Yini isiZulu sedayinaso? Indlela isayensi engazinaki ngayo izilimi zase-Afrika

Iphrojekthi yocwaningo ibizwa ngokuthi Isayensi ye-Decolonise uhlela ukuhumusha amaphepha esayensi ayi-180 asuka kwiseva ye-AfricArXiv preprint ayise ezilimini eziyisithupha zase-Afrika: isiZulu nesiSuthu saseNyakatho esisuka eningizimu ye-Afrika; AmaHausa namaYoruba aseNtshonalanga Afrika; kanye nesiLuganda nesi-Amharic saseMpumalanga Afrika.

Lezi zilimi zikhulunywa ngokuhlangana ngabantu abacishe babe yizigidi ezingama-98. Ngasekuqaleni kwale nyanga, i-AfricArXiv wabiza izethulo kusuka kubalobi abanesifiso sokuthi amaphepha abo acatshangelwe ukuthi ahunyushwe. Umnqamulajuqu ungo-20 Agasti.

Amaphepha ahunyushiwe azothatha imikhakha eminingi yesayensi, ubuchwepheshe, ubunjiniyela kanye nezibalo. Le phrojekthi isekelwa yiLacuna Fund, umxhasi we-data-science wabacwaningi emazweni ahola kancane naphakathi. Yasungulwa ngonyaka owedlule ngabanikeli bezimali abasiza umphakathi kanye nohulumeni abavela eYurophu naseNyakatho Melika, naseGoogle.

Izilimi ezisele ngemuva

Ukushoda kwamagama esayensi ezilimini zase-Afrika kunemiphumela yangempela emhlabeni, ikakhulukazi kwezemfundo. ENingizimu Afrika, ngokwesibonelo, izakhamizi ezingaphansi kuka-10% zikhuluma isiNgisi njengolimi lwazo lwasekhaya, kepha yilona limi oluyinhloko lokufundisa ezikoleni - into izazi ezithi ziyisithiyo ekufundeni isayensi nezibalo.

Izilimi zase-Afrika zisale emuva ekuguqulweni kwe-inthanethi, kusho uKathleen Siminyu, ongungoti ekufundeni ngomshini nasekucutshungulweni kolimi lwemvelo lwezilimi zase-Afrika ezinze eKenya. “Izilimi zase-Afrika zithathwa njengento oyikhulumayo ekhaya, hhayi ekilasini, ezingabonakali endaweni yebhizinisi. Kuyinto efanayo nakwezesayensi, ”usho kanje.

ISiminyu iyingxenye yeMasakhane, inhlangano yezimpande zotshani yabacwaningi abanentshisekelo ekucutshungulweni kolimi lwemvelo ngezilimi zase-Afrika. IMasakhane, okusho ukuthi 'sakha ndawonye' ngesiZulu, inamalungu angaphezu kwamakhulu amane avela emazweni angaba ngu-400 ezwenikazi. Sebeneminyaka emithathu besebenza ndawonye.

Iphrojekthi ye-Decolonise Science ingenye yemizamo eminingi eyenziwa yileli qembu; okunye kufaka phakathi ukuthola inkulumo enenzondo eNigeria nokufundisa ubuchule bokufunda ngomshini ukubona amagama nezindawo zase-Afrika.

Ekugcineni, iDecolonise Science ihlose ukudala izichasiselo ezitholakala mahhala ku-inthanethi zamagama esayensi ngalezi zilimi eziyisithupha, futhi izisebenzisele ukuqeqesha ama-algorithms wokufunda ngomshini wokuhumusha. Abaphenyi banethemba lokuqedela le phrojekthi ekuqaleni konyaka ka-2022. Kodwa kunesifiso esibanzi: ukunciphisa ubungozi balezi zilimi ukuba zingasasebenzi ngokubanika indawo enamandla ku-inthanethi.

Ukwakhiwa kwamagama

IDecolonise Science izoqasha abahumushi ukuthi basebenze emaphepheni akwa-AfricArXiv umbhali wokuqala ongowase-Afrika, kusho umphenyi oyinhloko uJade Abbott, ingcweti yokufunda imishini ezinze eGoli, eNingizimu Afrika. Amagama angenakho okufana nolimi oluqondiwe azomakwa ukuze ochwepheshe bamatemu kanye nabaxhumanisi besayensi bakwazi ukwakha amagama amasha. "Akufani nokuhumusha incwadi, lapho amagama angahle abe khona," kusho u-Abbott. "Lokhu kungumsebenzi wokwakha amagama."

Kodwa “asifuni ukuqhamuka negama elisha ngokuphelele”, kunezela uSibusiso Biyela, umbhali weScienceLink, inkampani yezokuxhumana kwezesayensi ezinze eGoli futhi enguzakwethu kulo msebenzi. "Sifuna ukuthi umuntu ofunda leyo ndatshana noma lelo gama aqonde ukuthi lisho ukuthini uma eqala ukulibona."

UBiyela, obhala ngesayensi ngesiZulu, kuvame ukuthola amagama amasha ngokubheka izimpande zesiGreki noma zesiLatini zamagama akhona esayensi esiNgisini. Iplanethi, isibonelo, ivela esiGrekini sasendulo amacebo, okusho ukuthi 'ukuzulazula', ngoba amaplanethi abonwa ukuthi ahamba esibhakabhakeni sasebusuku. NgesiZulu, lokhu kuba umhambi, okusho nokuthi uzulazula. Elinye igama leplanethi, elisetshenziswa kwizichazamazwi zesikole, lithi umhlaba, okusho ukuthi 'uMhlaba' noma 'umhlaba'. Amanye amagama ayachaza: nge 'fossil', isibonelo, uBiyela waqamba ibinzana amathambo amadala atholakala lapho emhlabathini, noma 'amathambo amadala atholakala emhlabathini'.

Kweminye imikhakha yesayensi, njengocwaningo lwezinto eziphilayo, abacwaningi abazama ukuthola amagama afanele bazodinga ukungena emithonjeni ekhulunywayo. U-Lolie Makhubu-Badenhorst, oyibamba lomqondisi weHhovisi Lokuhlelwa Nokuthuthukiswa Kwezilimi eNyuvesi yaKwaZulu-Natali eThekwini, uthi ukungabi bikho kwegama lesayensi emafayilini abhaliwe akusho ukuthi alikho. “Ubhalele izinto, mina ngigxile ngomlomo. Ulwazi lukhona, kodwa alubhalwanga kahle, ”kusho uMakhubu-Badenhorst, ongeyona ingxenye yephrojekthi yeDecolonise Science.

Ochwepheshe bamatemu weSayensi yeDecolonise bazoza nohlaka lokuthuthukisa amagama esayensi esiZulu, kusho uBiyela. Uma lokho sekuqediwe, bazoyisebenzisa nakwezinye izilimi.

Leli thimba lizohlinzeka ngohlu lwamagama alo njengamathuluzi amahhala ezintatheli nabathinteli besayensi, kanye namabhodi ezilimi kazwelonke, amanyuvesi nezinkampani zobuchwepheshe, eziqhubeka nokuhlinzeka ngokuhumusha okuzenzakalelayo. “Uma udala igama futhi lingasetshenziswa abanye, ngeke lingene olimini,” kusho uBiyela.

Owesifazane wenza amakhophi esikhungweni se-Google Artificial Intelligence e-Accra, eGhana, e-Afrika.
I-Google icela usizo lokuthuthukisa ikhwalithi yokuhumusha kwayo kwezilimi zase-Afrika. Isikweletu: UCristina Aldehuela / AFP nge-Getty

I-Big tech: 'sidinga usizo lwakho'

Abaphenyi bakaMasakhane bathi ngokomlando izinkampani zobuchwepheshe bomhlaba beziziziba izilimi zase-Afrika, kodwa kule minyaka edlule, seziqalile ukuxhasa ngezimali ucwaningo kulo mkhakha.

"Siyazi ukuthi izinkulungwane eziningi zezilimi zase-Afrika njengamanje azimelelekile ku-software yokuhumusha," kusho okhulumela i-Google Imvelo. I-tech giant ifuna ukwandisa i-Google Translate ukuze ifake izilimi eziningi zase-Afrika, kufaka phakathi isiTwi, isi-Ewe, iBaoulé, iBambara, i-Fula, i-Kanuri, i-Krio, i-Isoko, isiLuganda, iSango, iTiv ne-Urhobo, bangeze. Kodwa-ke, idinga "izikhulumi zalezo zilimi ukusisiza sithuthukise ikhwalithi yokuhumusha kwethu" ukuze bakwazi ukuhlanganiswa nensizakalo.

"Umqondo omkhulu ubunikazi besayensi," kuchaza uBiyela. Bobabili yena no-Abbott bathi kubalulekile ukuqeda isayensi esikhundleni sobukhosi ngokuvumela abantu ukuthi benze ucwaningo futhi bakhulume ngesayensi ngezilimi zabo. Okwamanje, kungenzeka ukuthi kusetshenziswe izilimi zase-Afrika ukukhuluma ngezepolitiki nezemidlalo, kodwa hhayi isayensi, kusho uBiyela.

Ngokufanayo, isiNgisi yilona limi olusetshenziswa kakhulu ekuphathweni nasekulondolozweni kwemvelo - kepha ngaphandle kokuthi abantu baqonde incazelo yamatemu athile kanye nemiqondo futhi bakwazi ukukhuluma ngayo ngezilimi zabo zasekhaya, bangazizwa behlukanisiwe nemizamo kahulumeni yokulondoloza imvelo nezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo, kusho uBheka Nxele , umphathi wohlelo lokubuyiselwa kwemvelo, ukuhlelwa kwemvelo nokuvikelwa kwesimo sezulu kumasipala weTheku laseNingizimu Afrika.

Abaphenyi bakhathazekile ngokuthi uma izilimi zase-Afrika zingafakwanga kuma-algorithms aku-inthanethi, angagcina engasasebenzi futhi akhohlwe. “Lezi yizilimi [abantu] abazikhulumayo. Lezi yizilimi abazisebenzisa nsuku zonke, futhi bahlala nazo futhi babona iqiniso eliku- x iminyaka, ulimi lwabo lungahle lufe ngoba akukho okubhalwe phansi kwidijithali, ”kusho uSiminyu.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02218-x