Le bhulogi ithunyelwe kusuka ASAPbio futhi wasebenzisa ngaphansi CC-BY 4.0 ilayisense. Sicela ufake noma imiphi imibono nezichasiselo kokuthunyelwe koqobo lapho asapbio.org/force2019-preprints-vision-dinner.

Ukulandela ingxoxo yephaneli mayelana nokuthi "Ubani ozothonya impumelelo yezimfanelo zokuqala zebhayoloji nokuthi kube yini ekugcineni?" At I-FORCE2019 (kufingqiwe lapha), siqhubeke nengxoxo ngokudla kwakusihlwa nabapaneli nabanye ababambe iqhaza emphakathini:

Etafuleni 1:

  • U-Emmy Tsang (umgqugquzeli), eLife
  • I-Theo Bloom, BMJ ne-medRxiv
  • U-Andrea Chiarelli, Ukucwaninga Ngokucwaninga
  • Scott Edmunds, GigaScience
  • I-Amye Kenall, Imvelo yeSpringer
  • Fiona Murphy, umeluleki ozimele
  • UMichael Parkin, eYurophu PMC, EMBL-EBI
  • U-Alex Wade, uChan Zuckerberg Initiative

Etafuleni 2:

  • UNaomi Penfold (umgqugquzeli), ASAPbio
  • UJuan Pablo Alperin, ScholCommLab / Iphrojekthi yeLwazi le-Publick
  • UHumberto Dheat, Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Sezolimo (i-Argentina)
  • Jo Havemann, KiaArXiv
  • UMaria Levchenko, eYurophu PMC, EMBL-EBI
  • ULucia Loffreda, Ukubonisana Ngocwaningo
  • UClaire Rawlinson, BMJ no-medRxiv
  • UDario Taraborelli, I-Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

Ukubhekana nezinkinga ezithile ezinobuqili njengeqembu elinemibono ehlukahlukene, sixoxe ngezitatimende ezinhlanu zabantu abasebenza ngokungahleleki ngaphambi kokuthi ukusebenza kungasebenza noma kungasebenzi kanjani. Ithebula lika-Emmy kuxoxwe ngalo:

  • Izinga lokuhlolwa kokuhlela kanye / noma ukubuyekezwa kontanga ukuthi umlingisi wokuqala wedlulile kufanele lidluliselwe obala endaweni lapho kufinyeleleka khona isimemezelo sokuqala.
  • Kufanele njalo kube mahhala ukuthi umbhali athumele umbhalo wokuqala
  • Izinyathelo zokugcina akufanele zisetshenziselwe ukuthola kuqala ukutholakala
  • Amaseva wangaphambi kokudlula kufanele abe yi-agnostic ukukhuphuka namathuluzi angaphansi komfula kanye nezinqubo

Okwamanje itafula likaNawomi (elifanekiselwe ngenhla) laxoxa ngokuthi “amaseva angaphambi kokuphakanyiswa akufanele axhaswe abaxhasi bezimali zocwaningo nabenzi bemigomo ngaphandle kokuthi bakhombise ukuphatha umphakathi”, ngaphambi kokushintshana ngemibono ehlukene yokuthi yikuphi okungase kube yikho.

Isitatimende se-Straw-man 1: Izinga lokuhlolwa kokuhlela kanye / noma ukubuyekezwa kontanga ukuthi iprrint idlulile kufanele idluliselwe obala endaweni yokufinyelela kumprint.

Ngenkathi sivumelane ngokujwayelekile ukuthi amasheke wokuhlela kanye nanoma yikuphi ukubukeza okwenziwe kuphrinta kufanele kwaziswe ngokusobala, sakhawuleza sabona ukuthi sinemibono ehlukene yokuthi kusho ukuthini ukuvelela kulo mongo. Kubalulekile ukuthi sibheke izidingo zabafundi kanye nakho okuhlangenwe nakho: umcwaningi obhekabheka nje angavele adinge nje ukwazi ukuthi izinga lokuhlolisisa ukuthi yini obhalwe kulo (ngabe alikho? Ukuhlola kuqala ukuhambisana nezidingo zokuziphatha nezomthetho kanye nezesayensi) ukuvumelana? Izinga elithile lokubuyekezwa kontanga okujulile?), ngenkathi umcwaningi obhala ngokujulile kuleso sihloko sendlela yocwaningo noma indlela angathola imibono yokubukeza kontanga kanye nemibhalo ye-inguqulo ilusizo. Olunye ulwazi, njengembuyiselo, kufanele lwaziwe ngokuqondile kubo bonke abafundi. Ukuze uthole usizo olusebenzayo, kuzobaluleka futhi ukuthi imininingwane ekuhlolweni nasekubuyekezweni ithathwe ngokulingene kusetshenziswa ischema sedisata echazwe kahle futhi okuvunyelwene ngayo. Kepha idatha enjalo ingabanjwa kanjani ngokuqondile kusethi esatshalalisiwe? Ukubuyekezwa kontanga nezinqubo zokuhlela kulezi zinsuku kuyehluka kakhulu phakathi kwamaphephabhuku namaseva wokulungiselela, ngakho-ke singakwazi kangakanani ukubeka imigomo efanele kulezi zinqubo?

Isitatimende se-Straw-man 2: Kufanele njalo kube mahhala ukuthi umbhali athumele umbhalo wokuqala.

Sivumelane ngamabomu ukuthi okulungiselela kufanele kube mahhala lapho uzosebenzisa khona.

Isitatimende se-Straw-man 3: Izinyathelo zokugcina akufanele zisetshenziselwe ukuthola kuqala ukutholakala.

Ngokufanelekile, ukubekwa phambili kokutholwayo akumele kube nandaba, kodwa siye sabona ukuthi, esimweni sokucwaninga esikhona njengamanje, lolu daba kufanele lubhekwe. Lapho isimemezelo sishicilelwe esizindeni somphakathi, kuzothuthukiswa isayensi yomsebenzi ochazwe kulwandiso. Siyaqaphela ukuthi amathuluzi wezomthetho akhona manje kungenzeka angasebenzi ngokuhambisana nalokhu: ngokwesibonelo, umthetho welungelo lobunikazi wase-US usungula ukubeka kuqala okusekelwe ekufayelweni kwesicelo selungelo lobunikazi, kanye noma yikuphi ukudalulwa esidlangalaleni - ngomhlangano wokuqala noma umhlangano ongahlelekile - kungakuhlehlisa lokhu. Ukucatshangelwa okwengeziwe nokucacisa kuyadingeka ekutheni ukuthumela umuntu kungaphikisana kanjani nezimangalo ezisezingeni eliphambili nokuthi kusho ukuthini ukutholwa nempahla yengqondo.

Isitatimende se-Straw-man 4: Amaseva we-preprint kufanele abe yi-agnostic ukukhuphuka kanye namathuluzi asezansi nomfula.

Ukuze usebenzise amandla okuqala kumandla abo aphelele, sicabanga ukuthi amaseva okushicilela kufanele ahambisane futhi asebenzisane namathuluzi akhuphukayo naphansi, isoftware nozakwethu, futhi ngasikhathi sinye anganaki imininingwane noma izikhombisi ndlela yokwenza izinto ezivelayo, amazinga omphakathi njalonjalo. Isibonelo, izinqubo ezikhuphukayo zokuthwebula futhi zilinganise imethadatha zingasiza kakhulu ekutholakaleni. Amaseva wokulungiselela womphakathi nawo angaluleka ngezindlela ezihamba phambili zokuhamba ngokugeleza komfula, ukungeza inani kulo msebenzi kanye nokwenza lula ukusetshenziswa futhi neminikelo eyengeziwe.

Isitatimende se-Straw-man 5: Amaseva we-preprint akufanele axhaswe abaxhasi bezimali zocwaningo kanye nabenzi benqubomgomo ngaphandle kokuthi bakhombise ukuphathwa komphakathi.

Kusho ukuthini ukuphathwa komphakathi futhi kungani lokhu kubalulekile?

Sixoxe ngokuthi isisusa esikhulu sokuqinisa ingqalasizinda eholwa ngumphakathi ukunciphisa amathuba ezintshisekelo ezentengiselwano ezibekwa phambili kunenzuzo yesayensi, njengoba kwenzekile ngokulahleka kobunikazi kanye nokufinyelela emibhalweni yesandla ebukezwe (yiqoqo) elifanele kuya inzuzo ebalulekile yabashicileli bezohwebo. Lapha, kungenzeka sibuze: ingabe izintshisekelo zezentengiselwano zibekwa ngaphezu kwenhloso yokwabelana ngolwazi nokwenza lula inkulumo, futhi singakuqinisekisa kanjani ukuthi lokhu akunjalo ngamaseva angaphambili?

Ngaphandle kwabashayeli bezentengiselwano, sivume ukuthi abahlinzeka ngemisebenzi / nengqalasizinda (abashicileli, ochwepheshe) benza izinqubo zokukhetha nezinqubo ezithinta ukusebenza komsebenzisi. Lokhu akuzange kuphakanyiswe njengokugxeka - esikhundleni salokho, abaningi bethu bavuma ukuthi ukusebenza kwabacwaningi abathile kuvame ukuqondiswa yizidingo zabo zomuntu ngamunye futhi hhayi inzuzo ehlanganayo, ngenxa yengcindezi nezingqinamba zemvelo abasebenza kuyo. Abantu abasebenzela ukushicilela izinhlangano baletha amakhono nobungcweti ekubikeni isayensi ehambisana nabahleli bezemfundo, ababuyekezi kanye nababhali. Umbuzo uwukuthi uqinisekisa kanjani inqubo nezinqumo zokwakheka zihambisana nalokho okuzothuthukisa izifundi kalula.

Sixoxile ukuthi akekho noyedwa othintekayo ongamele izifiso ezinhle zesayensi, futhi awukho umbono owodwa wokuthi ungakufeza kanjani kangcono lokho. Ngabe ukuqhubekisela phambili ukukhula kweseva ethile kuyisibalo kuwo wonke umphakathi? Noma ingabe zonke izinqumo kufanele zenziwe ngokwesifiso seqoqo? Okuqukethwe okufanele sikunake, futhi sazi kanjani ukuthi ngubani okufanele sikuthembe? Ngabe iyiphi inqubo yezinqumo zeqembu elilodwa eliphendulwa ngayo kulo lonke? Sibuze le mibuzo ngokuqonda okwabiwe ukuthi amaphephabhuku amaningi asebenza njengokubambisana phakathi kwamalungu omphakathi wezemfundo nabasebenzi bokushicilela, nokuthi amanye amaseva wokushicilela (njenge-bioRxiv) asebenza emigqeni efanayo. Kodwa-ke, noma ngabe lokhu kusebenza kanjani futhi kungabonakali, futhi ukungabi sobala kungaba yinkinga enkulu uma kuziwa ekuthembeni ukuthi izinqumo zizisizatho ezihle kakhulu. Ukushiya isinqumo sokuthi ngubani ozothembela kubaxhasi noma abahlinzeki bezinqubomgomo kungenzeka kungakhombisi okufunwa ngumphakathi obanzi.

Ngakho-ke, izinqumo kungasebenza kanjani kwiseva yokuqala? Sibheke ezinye izibonelo zokubusa okuholwa ngumphakathi - ngabe ngabe lowo mphakathi unegalelo ezinqumweni noma ukwazi ukubamba abenzi bezinqumo baziphendulele kuzo, ikakhulukazi ukuvikela noma yiziphi izinqumo ezithonywa yizinhloso zentengiso. Enye indlela ukusebenzisa isicelo esivulekile sokuphawula (i-RFC; ngokwesibonelo, bheka https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Requests_for_comment) ukuze noma ngubani akwazi ukunikeza okokufaka. Kodwa-ke, kumele kube nenqubo esobala nenobulungiswa yokunquma ukuthi ukufakwa kwenzakalwe ngubani, nokuqashelwa ukuthi lezo zinqubo aziqinisekisi imiphumela engcono. Ngenye indlela, amaphrojekthi angasebenzisa inhlanganisela yezindlela zokulalela ababambiqhaza abahlukene: isibonelo, iqembu ngemuva kwe-Europe PMC lilalela abasebenzisi ngokusebenzisa ucwaningo lomkhiqizo, abafundisayo ngebhodi labeluleki besayensi, kanye nakwabasebenza inqubomgomo ngokubambisana kwabaxhasi. Le nqubo yokugcina inganikeza inqubo ethathayo yokwenza izinqumo, engaqondiswa kalula ngababambiqhaza oyedwa (njenganoma ngubani omele umugqa wokuhweba), kodwa ingabiza kakhulu ngokwemithombo yokuphatha.

Ukuziphatha kwabasebenzisi kuthonywe izinqumo zenhlalo nezobuchwepheshe ezenziwe ezingeni lengqalasizinda, ngakho-ke iseva eyandulelayo iqhutshwa kanjani, futhi ngubani, ozonikela ekubonweni kwakhe kobunikazi bebhayoloji ekugcineni kuyodlalwa empeleni. The izingxoxo ziyaqhubeka online emva kwesidlo sethu sakusihlwa.

Singawuqala yini umbono owabiwe wokulungiselela kuqala ku-biology?

Okuhlangenwe nakho kwethu, imikhakha yolwazi namagugu konke kuthonya lokho okucabanga ukuthi kungaba yikho futhi sibe yilokhu: kusuka ekusizeni imiphumela ukuze kwabelwane ngayo ngesikhathi, ukuphazamisa ibhizinisi lamanje lokushicilela lokuthengisa.

Ithebula lika-Emmy lixoxe ngokuthi ukudideka okuzungeza lokho kwakha ini (kanti futhi yini okungabangeli) ukudala ubunzima lapho bekhulisa amathuluzi, izinqubomgomo kanye nengqalasizinda kubo. Ngamacala wokusetshenziswa ahlukile kokuqala, nalapho imiphakathi ingafuna ukuhlanganyela imiphumela yocwaningo lwangaphambi kokushicilelwa, kwahlongozwa ukuthi ukunciphisa incazelo yemibhalo esetshenziselwe “imibhalo yesandla elungiselelwe ukushicilelwa kwamaphephabhuku” kungasiza ukwenza lula ukuthuthuka kwezobuchwepheshe, umsebenzi wokuxhumana nowokwazisa. Amaseva wangaphambi kokungena lapho-ke ayoba nenhloso yodwa yezindlu nokusebenzela kuqala. Lokhu kungenzeka kungatholi zonke izimo zokusebenzisa, kodwa kubonakale njengokuhweba okuzuzayo okwandayo ukwamukelwa ngalesi sikhathi ngesikhathi. Kodwa-ke, etafuleni likaNawomi, siphakamise ukuthi kungasebenziseka ukuthi kube sobala maqondana nemibono eyinkimbinkimbi futhi / noma eyengeziwe yokushintsha, ukugwema inqubekela phambili lapho ukwamukelwa kwale ncazelo eyenziwe lula kuzinzile.

Okubalulekile, sixoxile ngezinto zethu ezikhathazayo mayelana nokuqala, ngesinye isikhathi izimo ezazingafune ukubona:

  • Amaphrinta kungenzeka angahlali ekhululekile ukuthumela nokufunda, ngokuya ngamamodeli wezezimali asetshenziselwa ukuxhasa izindleko zezingqalasizinda zangaphambili - bekunezwi lokuqaphelisisa ngokuthi inhlangano yokufinyelela okuvulekile e-US naseYurophu ilandela kanjani ukusetshenziswa kwe-athikili ukucubungula izindleko (ama-APC) ukukhokhela ukufinyelela okuvulekile. Lokhu kungaba yindlela okukhokhwa ngayo kuqala uma kungenziwa ezinye izindlela, njengokuxhaswa ngqo kwabaxhasi kanye nezikhungo (ngokwesibonelo, ngokusebenzisa imitapo yolwazi).
  • Nemikhakha etholakala esidlangalaleni, kuthiwani uma ingaqondwa kahle noma ichazwa ngokungeyikho? Kuthiwani uma isayensi engalungile isakazwa njengezindaba ezingamanga? Sixoxe ngokuthi amanye amaqembu eziguli akwazi kanjani ukugxeka izincwadi ngaphandle kwemfundo esemthethweni yesayensi nokuthi ukubukeza kontanga akuqinisekisi ukunemba. Ukunikeza abafundi ukucaca okukhulu nemininingwane yokuthi ngabe umsebenzi ubuyekezwe kanjani ezinye izazi kungasiza.
  • Amaphrinta angahle angaphazamisi ubufundi - singakwazi ukuqhubeka nokusebenza ezweni lapho ukufinyelela okusheshayo, okuvulekile, okulinganayo ekukhiqizweni nasekusetshenzisweni kolwazi kungenzelwa. Lokhu kungabonakala namhlanje ngokusebenzisa ukubhala kabusha ukufaka isimangalo kokutholwa kuqala ngaphandle kokufaka imininingwane yedatha engaphansi, nangokuthathwa kwangaphambi kokushicilelwa okuhlanganisiwe kwejenali lapho abalobi bengakhombisa ukuthi badlulile isigaba sezinto zokuphawula kumikhiqizo yamajenali ngokuhlonishwa okuhlonishwayo .
  • Ipulatifomu labashicileli lingakhiqiza ukukhiya, njengoba abalobi befaka okubhalwe kuqala endawenikazi yabo bese beqondiswa ukuthi bahlale ngaphakathi kweziteshi zokubuyekezwa kontanga zalowo mshicileli.
  • Sikhulume kafushane ngokusetshenziswa kwezinsizakusebenza ezivulekile ukwenza inzuzo: Ngabe izimangalo zidinga ukuvikeleka ekuxhashazweni kwezohwebo ngokusebenzisa izigatshana ezinamalayisense, ezifana nokwabelana ngokufanayo (-SA)? Mhlawumbe kungenjalo: ukukhiqiza inzuzo kwizinsizakusebenza ezivulekile kungenzeka kungabi yinkinga, inqobo nje uma umphakathi uvuma ukuthi izinzuzo zokuvuleleka ziyaqhubeka ukwedlula noma yikuphi ukuxhashazwa, njengoba kumanje kubonakala kunjalo kwiWikipedia.

Manje-ke besifuna ukubona kwenzekani? Siphetha ngokwabelana ngemibono yethu yangakwesokunxele, kufaka phakathi:

  • Indawo enkulu yokusatshalaliswa kocwaningo, ngendlela esifike ngesikhathi, ekhululekile kubabhali nakubafundi, nokuqhubeka kokubuyekezwa kontanga. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kontanga kungahle kube okwenzelwe umphakathi; kungahle kube ngempumelelo futhi kube yisikhathi lapho lokhu kudingeka, ngokwesibonelo ngesikhathi sokuqubuka kwezifo ezithathelwanayo. Ukuqinisekiswa nokuqinisekiswa kweprrint kungashintsha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, futhi ukufometha kuvumela umlando ogcwele ukuthi ungahlolisiswa.
  • Irekhodi elisobala lenkulumo yesayensi eyinsiza yokufunda eyamukelekayo kanye / noma imikhuba ethandwayo, ngaphakathi kokuqondiswa (ngokwesibonelo, indlela efanelekile yezibalo yokusebenzisa kusethi yokuhlola enikeziwe) noma kabanzi (ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi ungaba kanjani owakhayo Ukubuyekezwa kontanga nombhali onokwethenjelwa).
  • Ukuxhasa inqubekela phambili kwezokwelapha ezisheshayo nezingcono, ikakhulukazi ezweni lapho iziguli zithuthukise izimpilo zazo ngokugenca ubuchwepheshe bezokwelapha (isib. #WeAreNotWaiting) noma ukukhombisa ubufakazi (b) bobuhlengikazi babo obusezincwadini.
  • Imoto abacwaningi abangaxhuma ngayo futhi bahlanganyele nezinye izithameli (iziguli, abenzi benqubomgomo), futhi bafunde ukukwenza kahle lokhu.
  • Indlela yokwenziwa kolwazi nokusetshenziswa ukuze ilingane futhi ihlanganiswe, isibonelo ngokwandisa ukubonakala kwabacwaningi embulungeni yonke (njengoba iAfrikaArXiv nabanye beyenzela abacwaningi base-Afrika noma abavela e-Afrika).
  • Imoto yenkulumo yesazi engadingi ukuthi umuntu abe khona emihlanganweni emikhulu, inciphisa ukusetshenziswa kohambo ngendiza futhi igweme ukubekelwa eceleni ngenxa yezindleko, izindaba ze-visa nezinye izinto ezibekwayo.

Qhubekela phambili, iziphakamiso bekufanele zifake amagama ahlukene engxoxweni, zinikeze ubuholi obuningi bokucabanga, ukuthuthukisa umbono wokuvumelana wekusasa lemibandela, ukuthuthukisa imihlahlandlela yokusebenza engcono kakhulu yamaseva wangaphambi kokunye, futhi kunikeze abasebenzisi imininingwane eyanele nokucaca ukubasiza ukuba bakhethe (ngesenzo) nekusasa abafisa ukulibona.

Liyini ikusasa ofisa ukulibona? Sikumema ukuthi ukhulume ngalokhu nabasebenza nabo bese ushiya umbono wabo inguqulo yasekuqaleni yalokhu okuthunyelwe.


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