Qamba njenge: U-Hadmann, Jo, Bezuidenhout, Louise, Achampong, Joyce, Akligoh, Harry, Ayodele, Obasegun, Hussein, Shaukatali,… Wenzelmann, Victoria. (2020). Ukuhlanganisa ingqalasizinda ye-Open Science ukuthola izimpendulo ezisebenzayo zase-Afrika ku-COVID-19 [prerint]. doi.org/10.5281 /


Ababhali

Iqembu lesisekelo: 

  • Jo havemann, 0000-0002-6157-1494, Ukufinyelela 2 Izindlela & AfricArXiv, Germany
  • Louise Bezuidenhout, 0000-0003-4328-3963, I-Oxford University, i-AfricArXiv & Access 2 Perspectives, iNingizimu Afrika ne-UK 

Ukuxhumana: (JH & LB) info@africarxiv.org 

Ababhali abanikela (ngokulandelana kwezinhlamvu zamagama):


Uyacelwa ukuthi uqaphele: Le dokhumenti enguqulweni yayo yamanje (v1.1) ivulelwe ukuphawula. 

Sicela wenze iziphakamiso eziqondile kumbhalo ku- tinyurl.com/Open-Science-Africa-COVID-19, noma uthumele i-imeyili abalobi abahambisanayo. Ngokunikela ngokuqukethwe okukhulu kumbhalo, usengasijoyina ohlwini lwababhali.

Ukufaka isandla empendulweni yokusebenzisana kwezinye izinyathelo zomsebenzi kanye / noma ngokwezezimali, sicela uvakashele https://info.africarxiv.org/contribute/.

Isingeniso

Isimo sokushicilela samazwe omhlaba njengamanje siguqukela kakhulu ekusetshenzisweni kwe-Open Science kanye nemisebenzi yocwaningo ehlobene ne-COVID-19 konke kwenziwa obala kutholakala ngomzamo osheshayo wokuqhutshwa komphakathi wokucwaninga nokuhlola (Akligoh et al. 2020; JOGL COVID19 projekthi, Open Letter: Ukulandelela Ukuxhumana kanye ne-NHSX). Encwadini yombono we-Financial Times, uNdunankulu wase-Ethiopia kanye nomklomelo weNobel Peace Prize ka-2019 u-Abiy Ahmed ukhulume ngokubaluleka kwemizamo ehlanganisiwe yokulwa nobhubhane ngokufingqa: "[I] f leli gciwane alihlulwa e-Afrika, kuzolunga buyela emhlabeni wonke nje ”. Ubukhulu bezomnotho nezepolitiki u-Ahmed agxila kubo kumele busekelwe ocwaningweni oluyisayensi oluzwakalayo - oluhlukile lwasendaweni, ngenkathi luxhumeke emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuvula ucwaningo emnothweni othuthukile ngakho-ke ngeke kwanele, kumele sengeze futhi sisekele amaphakethe akhona obuchwepheshe kwi-Open Science ezwenikazi lase-Afrika. 

Ngobhubhane lwe-coronavirus lwamanje, isidingo esiphuthumayo Sokuvulwa Kokufika kwemiphumela yocwaningo kuzokhulisa ulwazi lwesizinda somphakathi sesayensi ezincwadini ezihlobene ne-COVID-19 ngaleyo ndlela kusiza abacwaningi base-Afrika ukuba bathuthukise izixazululo ezigxile e-Afrika ngokulwa negciwane le-SARS-CoV 2, ngesikhathi esifanayo ukuqinisa isikhathi izinsizakusebenza zasendaweni zamazwe ase-Afrika nokwandisa ukuzilungiselela kwazo ngokuqubuka kwesikhathi esizayo. Lokhu kusebenza kuwo womabili amazinga wesifunda kanye nowesifunda. Ukuqubuka kwegciwane langaphambilini, okufana nesifo esihlasela nje i-Ebola eNtshonalanga ne-Zika, kugcizelele imiphumela ebuhlungu yokufinyelela kokuvinjelwe kwedatha kanye nemigwaqo yokusabalalisa engahambisani kahle. Kungokususa kuphela amahholo, ukukhulisa ukufinyelela kwedijithali ezinsizakalweni, kanye nokukhuthaza izindlela zokwabelana ezihlanganyelwe imizamo yokunciphisa imiphumela yaleli gciwane kungaphumelela. Lokhu akulona iqiniso izimpendulo zesikhashana esifushane enkingeni yezempilo, kepha nemiphumela yesikhathi eside emnothweni wase-Afrika, ezikhungweni zezenhlalo kanye nezokuziphilisa zabantu ezwenikazi lonke. 

Amazwe ahola kancane naphakathi nendawo '(LMICs) iqhaza abelokhu ehola ngendlela evulelekile - ikakhulukazi i-Brasilian isheke yemibhalo egciniwe yama-database wenethiwekhi ye-SciELO (iSayensi yeThala leSayensi ye-elekhthronikhi ye-Intanethi) nayo emelwe eNingizimu Afrika. Sigqugquzela abathintekayo base-Afrika ukuthi babheke phambili amaphakethe akhona obuchwepheshe. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi impendulo ehlelekile ekwabelaneni ngolwazi e-Afrika ingathembela ezinhlakeni eziningi ezikhona ezisekela ukuvula ucwaningo nokwabelana ngolwazi. Ngempela, okudingekayo ukunakekela lezi zinsizakusebenza ezikhona, ukulungiselela ukuxhumana nokuxhumana, nokubhekana nanoma yiziphi izikhala nokusilela okuvezwa imephu okunjalo.

Ukuze kuphumelele kakhulu, ababambiqhaza bezocwaningo nabasunguli base-Afrika kumele basebenze ezinhlakeni ezikhona futhi ezingabizi kakhulu namapulatifomu ukuqinisekisa ukuthi idatha ekhiqizwa phakathi nalolu bhubhane ihlangabezana nezindinganiso zedatha ye-FAIR, nokuthi noma yikuphi ukuhlaziywa okulandelanayo kushicilelwa kuzingxenyekazi ze-Open Access kanye nemininingwane eyisisekelo etholakele ku vula izinqolobane zedatha. 

Ukugqugquzela imikhuba enjalo ngeke kusizakale kuphela ocwaningweni lwe-COVID-19, kodwa nocwaningo lwase-Afrika lulonke, futhi kuzosungula ukugeleza kokusebenza okuvulekile nokuhlanganyelwe kanye nezindlela zokushicilela. Ukuthuthukisa ukuvuleka ngaphakathi kwezifundo zase-Afrika kuyinto eseqhulwini ekhona ezwenikazi, futhi kunezimemezelo eziningi ezibalulekile ezisekela imizamo. Lokhu kufaka phakathi Isimemezelo SaseDakar Sokushicilelwa Kokuvula Okuvulekile e-Afrika kanye neGlobal South (2016) kanye neMigomo ye-Afrika yakamuva ye-Open Access Scholarly Communication (2019). Le mihlahlandlela ibeka umbono wocwaningo lwase-Afrika oluvulekile olubhekela lezi zinto eziseqhulwini ezilandelayo:

  • Izimiso zemvelo ezifundayo ezwenqubekela phambili ezwekazini ezivela eNyakatho, eCentral, eMpumalanga, eNtshonalanga naseNingizimu Afrika futhi zibaxhuma ohlelweni lokucwaninga lomhlaba.
  • Hlela ukuhanjiswa kwezithiyo zolimi esp francophone / anglophone / arabic kanye nezilimi zase-Afrika nezendabuko zase-Afrika.
  • Sungula izindawo zokusebenzela kanye namasethi wamathuluzi anikwe ubuchwepheshe afanele ukusetshenziswa ezimeni zocwaningo zase-Afrika ukulungiselela ukusebenzisana okusheshayo kanye nethuba elilinganayo lokuthola idatha nezinsizakalo ngaphandle kwendawo, ulimi nezinye izimo.
  • Hlanganisa nezinye izindlela, imithombo, namaphrojekthi afanele ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwe-Afrika ngaphakathi nangaphandle ukuze ukhulise ukuvuleka kanye nokushintshana ngolwazi ngendlela engenamthungo.

Ithuba leli bhubhane elinikeza ukucwaninga kanye nemiphakathi esebenza njengabenzi, (i-bio) kubaduni nohulumeni ukukhombisa ngoshintsho oluhlelekile olwalubonakala ngaphambi kweCorona, futhi manje esiba nethuba langempela lokulwa ngokubambisana. 

Indlela yase-Afrika ebhubhaneni le-COVID-19

Kunokubaluleka kwendlela ephelele yokwakha umthamo wezikhungo ngaphakathi kwemfundo ephakeme kanye nezikhungo zokucwaninga zomphakathi ezixhaswa ngezimali kulelizwekazi. Njengokulethwa kweSustainable Development Goals (SDG), impendulo enkingeni ye-Covid-19 izodinga ukulethwa ngokusebenza ngokubambisana. Impendulo yamazwe omhlaba kuze kube yimanje igxila emandleni okuxhuma kubantu ngokusebenzisa abezindaba nobuchwepheshe, iningi lazo ligxila kumadolobha amakhulu amazwe amaningi ase-Afrika. Ukuhlukumezeka kwempilo yabantu kanye nakwezomnotho wase-Afrika kungukuthi kudinga impendulo ehlanganayo yomhlaba wonke yokuthi isetshenziswe kanjani kangcono futhi kusetshenziswe izinsiza zokusekela lawo mazwe okuthola ubunzima obuningi ngezinto ezithile zansuku zonke zokuphila kwansuku zonke. ezindaweni zasemadolobheni (Adegbeye, 2020).  

 Ukuhlanganisa amaqembu ababambiqhaza ababambe iqhaza kanye nemiphakathi, efana: 

  • Izinhlelo zeScienceCommunication & Science Literacy (ososayensi be-PR nezintatheli)
  • Ucwaningo (biomedical & socio-economical)
  • Amahabhu we-Tech & Innovation (AfriLabs, i4Policy, ASKnet, ao)
  • Abenzi bezinqubomgomo (amazinga kamasipala, kazwelonke, wesifunda)

NgoMashi 18, i-AfricArXiv yethule umzamo wokunikezela ngezinsizakusebenza ngezinsizakusebenza ezungeze i-COVID-19 esimweni se-pan-Afrika. NgoMashi 26, 2020, I-African Academy of Sciences (AAS) yabiza i-webinar yabachwepheshe base-Afrika nabangewona ama-Afrika ukuqala ukucabanga okujwayelekile ekuchazeni i-ajenda yocwaningo yokuqhamuka kwe-COVID19 futhi inikeze umzamo ohlangene osuselwe ekulweni nesayensi lolu bhubhane e-Afrika. Zombili lezi zinhlelo ziyavuma ukuthi le ndlela kumele ibandakanye ukusebenzela nokuvikela bonke abantu base-Afrika, okungukuthi namaqembu asengozini nababandlululwa njengabantwana abayizintandane, abantu abafudukele kwamanye amazwe (IDP) kanye nababaleki. Indlela yokucabanga yokuqanjwa kwezinto ezibandakanya konke ichazwe nguMcPhee et al. (2018) kusuka kundabuko yendabuko yokubandakanya futhi uqiniseke ukuthi sicabangela i-Afrika ngesikhathi sayo.

Ulwazi lwendabuko nolwamasiko

Emazweni amaningi ase-Afrika, ukusetshenziswa kwemithi yesintu kuvamile emiphakathini. Imithi yendabuko imvamisa isetshenziswa ngokubambisana, noma ukufaka esikhundleni somuthi we-allopathic. Izimpendulo ezihlanganisiwe ze-COVID-19 e-Afrika ngaleyo ndlela zincike kochwepheshe bezempilo bendabuko, abasebenza ngezempilo be-allopathic kanye nemihlahlandlela kahulumeni enikeza umyalezo ongaguquki. Ikakhulu, imikhandlu yabelaphi bendabuko kumele ilethwe ezingxoxweni ze-COVID-19 zezimpendulo zikazwelonke ze-COVID-19.

Ucwaningo ngemithi yendabuko kanye nezinhlelo zolwazi lwendabuko luyakhuphuka ezikhungweni eziningi zase-Afrika, futhi laba bacwaningi abangochwepheshe bangasebenza njengombandela obalulekile phakathi kwabasebenzi bezempilo bendabuko, ohulumeni kanye nezinhlelo zezempilo zezwe (i-REF). 

Emazweni amaningi ase-Afrika, ukusebenzisana phakathi kwemiphakathi ehlinzeka ngezempilo sekuvele. Isibonelo, Abezempilo Yendabuko (i-THP) eNingizimu Afrika banikeza isikhundla esihlanganisiwe ku-COVID-19 futhi bavimbele isimangalo samanga nesidukisayo samandla okuphulukisa noma owaziyo ukuthi ungalapha kanjani noma welaphe i-coronavirus (Covid-19). Izibonelo zalo mkhuba kufanele zabelwane kabanzi ngolwazi nolwazi olungcono kakhulu.

Kubalulekile futhi ukuthi ukuvikeleka okuzuzwe kanzima kolwazi lwendabuko (njengoba kufakazelwe ezimisweni ze-CARE) akulona olwedlule ngokuphuthuma kwempendulo ye-COVID-19. Ikakhulu, ucwaningo ezindaweni ezixhunywe ku-inthanethi ku-COVID-19, ezempilo kanye nokuhlala kahle kumele ziqhubeke zivikelwe. Isibonelo, amaphrojekthi wokuqhakambisa ukukhiqizwa okuqhubekayo kanye nokusetshenziswa kwemifino yendabuko yase-Afrika ukuphepha kokudla kanye nokunciphisa ubuphofu (Abukutsa-Onyango, 2019). Abaphenyi base-Afrika babekwe kahle ukuthi baqhubeke nokubheka kabanzi ucwaningo kulezi zindawo ukugcina ukuvikela idatha, izimiso zokuziphatha kanye nokusetshenziswa kabusha okunenhlonipho kolwazi lwe-indiegnous nolwendabuko. 

Ngokubalulekile, lezi zindawo zidinga ukucutshungulwa ngaphakathi naphakathi kwemiphakathi yocwaningo lwase-Afrika neyamazwe omhlaba nezinhlangano zokuphikisana (isb. I-Indian natives of Africa Coordinating Committee, IPACC) kuwo wonke amazinga. Amayunithi amaningi okucwaninga aphesheya anokubambisana okuhlala nemiphakathi yase-Afrika, futhi ukuxhumana okunjalo kungabhekelwa ekuxhumeni kuzo zonke izindawo ukulungiselela ukuxoxisana okuhle kanye nokubambisana, ukuqinisekisa ukwenziwa kwemigomo ye-CARE, ukunamathela Isimemezelo se-UN ngamalungelo abantu bomdabu (I-UNDRIP) kanye nokubheka 'Izinkinga Zobunikazi Zempahla Kwamasiko Wamasiko' (Iphrojekthi ye-IPinCH). 

Ukusebenzisana kwamazwe omhlaba

Into ebaluleke kakhulu ekuphathweni kwesayensi nakwabaxhasi ngemali ukusekela ukusebenzisana kweNingizimu neNingizimu. Ukusebenzisana okunjalo kungasiza ukwaba okuhle ngokuhlanganyela kokufunda kanye nokufunda okubonakalayo ukuze kukhonjwe izindlela ezinokwenzeka nezindlela zokusebenza ku-Afrika yonkana, nangokushintshana kolwazi nobuchwepheshe phakathi kwe-Afrika, Latin-Amercia, neNingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia. Kukhona izibonelo ezinhle zokudluliselwa kokuzijwayeza ngempumelelo, njengokushintshwa kwenhlangano yokushicilela evulekile yeLatin American Open Access i-SciELO yaseNingizimu Afrika. 

Kube nokusekelwa okukhulu ngabaxhasi bezimali bamaphrojekthi aholwa yi-Afrika namanethiwekhi aqinisa amandla ocwaningo. Izibonelo ezinjalo zifaka i-African Open Science Platform (exhaswe nguMkhandlu Kazwelonke Wocwaningo waseNingizimu Afrika) kanye ne-Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA - ubambiswano lwe-African Academy of Sciences (AAS), New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) I-Ejensi enezigidi ezingama-US $ 5.5 ezixhasa ngemali yokuqala imbewu evela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, i-Wellcome Trust kanye noMnyango Wezokuthuthukiswa Kwamazwe Ngamazwe wase-UK (DFID)). Laba baxhasi abahlinzeki ngemithombo ebalulekile hhayi kuphela yezimali zentuthuko yengqalasizinda yesikhathi esizayo, kodwa futhi nobuchwepheshe, kanye nokuxhumana nobungoti bamazwe omhlaba kanye nababambiqhaza bezokuphatha kuzwelonke / bezifunda.

Uhla lwabanye ababambe iqhaza lukhona ohlelweni lokucwaninga lwase-Afrika osuvele lusebenza ekwenzeni lula ukuvuleleka. Uma kuhlangene kahle kungenzeka ukuthi la mathuluzi wedijithali kanye nababambiqhaza bangavele bafake igalelo elikhulu ekufezeni izifiso ezichazwe kusimemezelo esingenhla. Amanethiwekhi omhlaba kanye nokuqaliswa okufana ne-JOGL noma i-GIG eminyakeni yamuva nje kuqoqe isipiliyoni esihle kakhulu sokulungiselela nokuphatha imiphakathi yomhlaba wonke yokuzijwayeza ngaphezu kokuhlinzekwa kwemininingwane kanye nezindawo ezigcinwe kuzo. 

Yize kunjalo, ukuze ukusebenzisana kweNingizimu-Ningizimu kuchume, kuzodingeka kwenziwe umzamo omkhulu wokuqinisa amasiko wokuvuleleka, okwabelanayo kanye nokubambisana kwesifunda. Lokhu kuye kwamukelwa kabanzi njengento ebaluleke kakhulu ocwaningweni lwase-Afrika (REF). Ukuthuthukisa ukwethembana phakathi kwamalungu omphakathi avela emazweni ahlukene, izilimi namasiko ngaphezu kokuthuthukisa amakhono obuchwepheshe kungenye yezinselelo ezicindezela kakhulu umphakathi wesayensi womhlaba ovulekile njengamanje. Noma iyiphi indlela kufanele icubungule ukuphathwa komphakathi, ukuthuthukiswa kwezindlela zokuhamba, kanye nezindlela zokuxhumanisa umphakathi wesayensi wase-Afrika ovulekile nabanye ababambe iqhaza. Izibonelo ezivela emiphakathini ekhona, njenge-H3Africa neMalariaGen, kanye nezinhlelo ezivelayo ze-DELTAS zizohlinzeka ngezinsizakusebenza eziwusizo nezindlela zomgwaqo eziya ezindleleni zocwaningo zokubambisana.

Njengoba sifunda kusuka kwezinye izifunda zomhlaba ezingamasonto amabili ngaphambili nezikhathi zokufukamela kwe-coronavirus, imisebenzi yocwaningo ehlobene ngokushesha futhi ehlobene ngqo kufanele ifake ukuhlolwa okuphelele kokuhlola isilinganiso samanje sokutheleleka kanye nokuhlaziywa kwezibalo ngokutheleleka, ukufa nokululama endaweni , amazinga kazwelonke, wesifunda nawase-Afrika kanye nokuphenywa kwemithelela yezenhlalo nezomnotho hhayi kuphela ehlobene ngqo namazinga okutheleleka kepha kubhekwa wonke amazinga omphakathi kanye nezimo ezizayo.

Ithebula 1: Ababambe iqhaza, ubuchwepheshe babo kanye nezinsizakusebenza

Thola uhlu olukhulayo lwababambiqhaza abangaphezu kwe-120 ku info.africarxiv.org/stakelings/

AbabambiqhazaIsazi / isibophoInstitutions
Abenzi bezinqubomgomo nezinhlaka zokuxhasa ngezimaliUkuqinisekisa ukuzinza kwezezimaliI-AfDB, AU, izinhloko zombuso, ezokucwaninga nezempilo, i-AfDB, i-African UnionGates Foundation, i-CZI, iWorld Bank, 
Izikhungo zezempiloukunakekelwa kwezokwelaphaimitholampilo, izibhedlela, abelaphi bendabuko
Ama-hubs amasha nezindawo zokwakha

Ukulungisa, ukubheka phezulu nokubheka phezulu izinto zokuphasa nemishini ephukile, imibhalo evulekile yomsebenzi, ukuxhuma ucwaningo nesenzo, ukudala nokusebenzisa izinsiza zemfundo ezivulekile (i-OER) I-AfricaOSH, i-Open Science kanye ne-Hardware Network - i-OSHNet (Tanzania), i-AfriLabs, i-Impact Hub Network, i-Jokkolabs Network, i-RLabs Network, kanye nama-hubs angaphezu kwama-400 womuntu ngamunye ezwenikazi lase-Afrika afana neVilsquare (Nigeria), MboaLab (Cameroon), KumasiHive (IGhana), STICLab (Tanzania), iRobotech Labs (Tanzania), nezinye eziningi
AbezindabaUkuqinisekisa ukufundwa kwesayensiInethiwekhi ye-African Science Literacy
Ososayensi nabacwaningiUkuqoqwa kwedatha, ukuhlolwa kwegciwane / izikrini, ukuhlaziywa kwedathaAmanyuvesi kanye neZikhungo Zocwaningo, ama-NREN
Izikhungo zemfundo kanye namapulatifomuUkwakha amandla nokuqeqeshwa kuzo zonke izihloko ezifaneleI-TCC Africa, i-OER Africa, i-INASP,…
Umphakathi jikeleleFuna imininingwane emithonjeni ethembekile, ekuqhelaneni nomphakathi
Imiphakathi nezinhlangano zomhlaba jikelele (global)Ixhuma emiphakathini yomhlaba wokuzijwayeza, yokwabelana ngesipiliyoni nezindlela ezinhle kakhulu, xhuma ezihlokweni ezijwayelekile, isib. Ukuthuthukiswa kwengqalasizindaI-Just One Giant Lab (JOGL), Ukubuthana Komhlaba Wonke, I-GIPH, I-GOSH, ISOC; APC 

Iningi uma kungebona bonke ababambiqhaza asebevele bezilungiselele impendulo ecabangele futhi ezinikele ye-COVID-19. Kubalulekile ukuthi esikhundleni sokusebenza kuma-silos sihlanganise amasu nezindlela emazweni onke, ababambiqhaza, izithiyo zolimi kanye nemikhakha yemiphakathi. 

Ukusebenzisana ekuthuthukisweni kwe-Hardware kwempahla yezokwelapha

Ukusebenza ngokubambisana okuthuthuka ezweni lonke kunezinselelo zalo ezithile. Lezi ziqondisi zenzelwe ukusiza ukusebenzisana okusha kugweme izingibe ezivamile. Lesi sigaba sihloselwe kakhulu abacwaningi abaseGlobal North abafuna ukubheka ukwakhiwa kwamahardware angakhiwa futhi asetshenziswe e-Afrika

  1. Yenza ukusebenzisana phakathi kwabenzi, ochwepheshe bezempilo nabasebenzisi bokugcina ukuze uqonde imvelo lapho izosetshenziswa khona i-Hardware. Lokhu kubalulekile ekwakheni imininingwane efanelekile. Abahlanganyeli bendawo kungenzeka babe nolwazi ngamadivayisi afanayo futhi bazokwazi ukuthi basebenza kahle kangakanani endaweni yendawo. Cabanga ngokutholakala kwengqalasizinda esekelayo (ingabe i-ventilator yakho idinga ukunikezwa kwe-oxygen engaguquki?), Cabanga ngezimo ezikhona (yiluphi uhla lokushisa lwezinto zokusebenza?), Noma ukuthembeka kokuphakelwa kukagesi wendawo. Kuyo yonke le minyaka emibili edlule, i-Opton2020 evulekile yamaphrojekthi ama-Careables ithole ulwazi oluningi kulokhu kusebenzisana phakathi kwababambiqhaza abahlukahlukene futhi inikezela ngesizinda semininingwane yezisombululo ezikhona kanye nokusekelwa kwemibhalo. 
  1. Ukusebenzisana kwefomu lokukhiqiza / lokulungisa sendawo ukuqonda kangcono ukuthi kungakanani ukwakhiwa okungakhiwa futhi kulungiswe endaweni yakini. Ukukhiqiza nokulungisa izinto zasekhaya kubalulekile ekwenzeni ngcono ukutholakala nesikhathi esisetshenziselwa noma yiziphi izinsimbi. Izingxenye ezibuyisanayo kufanele zifunwe noma zikhiqizwe endaweni yakini ukuze kukhiqizwe futhi kulungiswe ukusebenza kahle. Kuyaqapheleka ukuthi izinto ezisetshenziselwa izindleko eziphansi / ezitholakala kalula eYurophu noma eMelika empeleni azihlanganisi nalokho okungabizi kakhulu / kutholakala kalula endaweni. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu kubalulekile ukuthi ubandakanye abahlanganyeli bendawo kusukela ezigabeni zokuqala zokuvota.
  1. Cabanga ngejubane lamaketanga wokuhlinzekwa kwamanye amazwe. Sebenza nabahlanganyeli bendawo ukuqonda izikhathi eziholayo zokuthenga imishini emazweni aphesheya. Ijubane nokwethenjwa kwamaketanga okuhlinzekwa komhlaba kuyahlukahluka ngesifunda. Ungacabangi ukuthi ngoba ingxenye ingenza kusuka efektri kwelinye izwekazi kuya elabhorethri yakho ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ukuthi ingafinyelela abahlanganyeli bakho ngasikhathi sinye. Hlola amaketanga wokuhlinzekela lapho kungenzeka khona noma ngabe ukuthunyelwa okuncane kungathunyelwa ngqo phakathi kwabahlanganyeli. Ukushoda noma ukuntuleka kwemishini yokucwaninga kungabuyelwa ingxenye ethile ngokuxhuma okuvulekile kwe-Open Source Hardware, ukulungiswa nokuphakama kwalokho okutholakalayo (Maia Chagas et al., 2019).
  1. Yakha ngokubambisana futhi ubambisane vet prototypes. Ngenkathi kungabonakala njengokuphindaphindwa kwemizamo yokwakha ama-prototypes ngasikhathi sinye ezindaweni eziningi kuvumela bonke ozakwethu abafanele ukuthi babambe iqhaza kulo mklamo. Ibuye ivumele nezinkinga zokuhlonza zakuqala ezingabhekana nazo ngesikhathi somkhiqizo wendawo. Ukuhlolwa kokusebenzisana kwama-prototypes, njengoba sekwenziwe ngaphakathi kwe-JOGL Covid19 Project, kuwumzamo owusizo womhlaba wonke wokuxhasa ukwenziwa kwasendaweni kwaleyo miklamo efakazelwe ukuthi ilusizo kakhulu ezimeni ezahlukahlukene.

Ukucwaninga kokuhamba komsebenzi ocwaningweni lwase-Afrika

Engxenyeni elandelayo, sibhidliza ukuhamba kokucwaninga okujwayelekile ukwenza iziphakamiso ezithile kusinyathelo ngasinye ukusuka ekutholakaleni, ukuhlaziya (kufaka phakathi ukuhlela iphrojekthi, indlela yokusebenza, ukukhiqizwa kwedatha, ukuhlaziya imiphumela), ukubhala kanye nokushicilela.

Ukutholakala kwezincwadi ezifanele zocwaningo 

Iningi labashicileli bezemfundo lenze ukuthi ucwaningo olufanele lwe-COVID-19 lufinyeleleke ngokuthi (okwesikhashana!) Bakhokhe imali yokubhalisela.

I-Web of Science neScopus ayimeli umphumela wokucwaninga ngobuningi bomhlaba (Tennant et al., 2019). Ngeshwa, izinselelo zomklamo oqhubekayo zingasho ukuthi izincwadi zesiNgisi ezinyatheliswa kumaphephabhuku abhalwe kwimininingwane yamazwe omhlaba (njenge-DOAJ) zibekwe ngaphambili. Lokhu kuyiqiniso ikakhulukazi kumamagazini amancane, wesifunda ase-Afrika angenawo amandla okubamba okuqukethwe kwawo okugcwele online. Lokhu kungasho ukuthi imiphumela yokuCwaninga kwe-Afrika kunzima ukuyithola nokuyifinyelela.

Kuyaziwa ukuthi izindlela ezibalulekile zokuqeda ukungabonakali kokubonakala kocwaningo lwase-Afrika ukuqinisa iqhaza elibanjwa izinqolobane zedijithali endaweni yocwaningo yase-Afrika. Kuze kube manje, ukubonakala, ukuxhumana kanye nokusesha kwalezi zinqolobane kuye kwahluka kakhulu. Ukwenza imephu yendawo ebekiwe nokuhlela ukuxhumana kungenxa yalokho kubalulekile. Umnikelo wakamuva kulokhu kube ukushicilelwa kwedathasethi eguquguqukayo yezinqolobane zocwaningo zedijithali zase-Afrika ezinemephu ebukwayo esebenzisanayo (iBezuidenhout, Havemann, Ikhishi, iDe Mutiis, ne-Owango, 2020). Izinsizakusebenza ezinjalo kufanele zikhethwe futhi zandiswe ukuze zinikeze ulwazi olusesikhathini kule nethiwekhi ebalulekile yokwabelana ngemininingwane. 

Kubalulekile futhi ukuthi i-ecosystem evele kabusha yezwekazi lase-Afrika iqhubeke nokusebenzisana nochwepheshe bamazwe omhlaba, njengomphakathi we-Re3data ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukwakheka kwabo nokwenza kwabo kuyahlangabezana namazinga aphesheya futhi kusize ukusebenzisana. Ngaphezu kokuxhasa amakhosombe wokusebenza, kumele kwenziwe umzamo owengeziwe wokwakha amandla ekwabiweni kwedatha nasekuvuleni ukufinyelela phakathi komphakathi wokucwaninga wase-Afrika. Ukusekelwa ekuqeqeshweni kokufunda nokubhala okwedijithali kuyingxenye ebalulekile yomqondo ovulekayo weSayensi. Idathabheyizi yezifundo eziku-inthanethi ezithuthukisa ulwazi lokufunda okwedijithali kufanele lukhiqizwe futhi lakhiwe. Kufanele kwenziwe imizamo yokuhumusha okuqukethwe ezilimini ezisemqoka njengesiNgisi, isiFulentshi, isiSwahili kanye nesi-Arabhu.

Amathuluzi edijithali weSayensi alungele izilungiselelo ezinamandla aphansi / Okusekelwe ku-REF

Eminyakeni yamuva kube nokwanda okusheshayo kwamathuluzi aku-inthanethi alekelela izigaba ezahlukahlukene zokwenza umsebenzi ocwaningweni. Ukuthathwa kwala mathuluzi e-Afrika, nokho kube nomkhawulo. Kungenzeka ukuthi lokhu kungenxa yoxhaxha lwezinkinga ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi ukuqwashisa, amasiko okucwaninga, ulimi, izinselelo zezingqalasizinda nezinkinga ezihlobene nokuklanywa. Kubalulekile ukuthi abacwaningi base-Afrika bakhiqize ngokuqinile uhlu lwamathuluzi edijithali afanele, akhethwayo futhi asimeme.

Ukutholwa: Amathuluzi wedijithali othola imisebenzi efanelekile yezazi. 

1) = i-Afrika ethile, 2) = umhlaba jikelele, umthombo ovulekile, 3) womhlaba jikelele, wezentengiso


Ukusesha izincwadi, amaRekhodiUkuphathwa Kwereferensi
1)I-African Magazinals Online (AJOL), AfricArXiv, DICAMES - - - 
2) Vula amamephu Wokwazi, Ukusesha kwe-BASEIZotero, ReFigure
3)IGoogle Scholar, i-Lens, ScienceOpenSciLit, ResearchGate, iPhephahive.orgUkuthuthukiswa

Indlela yokusebenza nokuhlaziywa kwedatha

Ukuhlaziywa: Amathuluzi wedijithali wokuhlaziya imisebenzi efanelekile yezazi
1) = i-Afrika ethile, 2) = umhlaba jikelele, umthombo ovulekile, 3) womhlaba jikelele, wezentengiso


Indlela yokusebenzisaUkugcinwa kwedathaUkubukwa kwedatha
1) 
evulekile i-Afrika, i-Africa Information Highway Portal, i-Africa Infrastructure information PortalIkhodi ye-Afrika
2)Amaphrothokholi.ioI-R-OpenSci, I-Re3Data, Idatha, I-Oceanprotocol.com, OSF.ioUGephi, R
3)
I-FigubeKumu

Ukusebenzisana kwe-Agile Remote

Yonke imiqondo yolwazi ngokubambisana isizakala ngokusebenzisa indlela evulekile, enikeza inzuzo eyengeziwe ukuthi kulula kakhulu ukuzijayeza namaqembu akude. 

Source: https://www.leanovate.de/training/scrum/  

Ngokwesisekelo sayo, ukuthuthukiswa komkhiqizo osemdala kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokuphendula njalo kanye nokwenza kwe-cyclical (iterative) kuwo wonke amazinga: ekwenzeni okungokoqobo, ezingeni leqembu, nakubaphathi.

Izindlela ze-Agile ziyakwazisa ukuthi ukuthuthukiswa komkhiqizo okuyinkimbinkimbi akunakuhlelelwa kusengaphambili ngokuningiliziwe, ngoba izidingo empeleni zizoshintsha phakathi nesikhathi sokuphila futhi ngokuvamile akuqondakali ngokuphelele ekuqaleni kwephrojekthi.

Esikhundleni salokho, indlela yokuguga iguqula izigaba ezimfishane zokuhlela nentuthuko. Amalungu eqembu avumelana ngezinhloso ezizofezeka ngesikhathi sokuhlangana esilandelayo, basebenzisane ngamafuphi nsuku zonke futhi abukeze izilinganiso ezisekupheleni kwesiphetho ngasinye. Ngokusebenzisa kabusha indlela, ulwazi lwenqubo olwengeziwe lungatholakala. 

Ubuciko obalulekile kwanoma yikuphi ukubambisana okudala yilezi: ukusilela emuva okwabiwe kwemisebenzi; ibhodi yemisebenzi eyabiwe ye-sprint elandelayo; kanye nemihlangano ejwayelekile. Kubalulekile ezinqubweni ezisheshayo ukuthi zenziwa yizindima ezizinikezele emazingeni amabili, okungukuthi umkhiqizo (isib. Ngumnikazi womkhiqizo) kanye nenqanaba lezinqubo (isib. Ngumphathi we-scrum noma umqeqeshi we-agile).


Umthombo OvaliweOpen Source
Ukuhlela / I-Whiteboardhttps://mural.co https://miro.com https://stormboard.com/https://openboard.ch https://wbo.openode.io/ 
Umsebenzi weBhodihttps://trello.com/ https://leankit.com/ https://wekan.github.io/ http://taskboard.matthewross.me/ 
Imihlangano / Izingcingo ezikudehttps://zoom.us/ https://tico.chat https://jitsi.org/ https://unhangout.media.mit.edu/ 
I-Retrospectivehttps://www.teamretro.com/ https://www.parabol.co/ https://retrorabbit.io/  https://github.com/funretro/distributed 
Isoftware Suitehttps://www.atlassian.com/software/jira https://www.openproject.org/ https://gitlab.com https://taiga.io/ 

Ngaphezu kwezinsizakusezi ezingenhla, iCoronavirus Tech Handbook iyisisetshenziswa samanje sezinhlelo zobuchwepheshe esithe xaxa sokusebenza kude. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi ukusebenzisana okukude okudala kuyindlela inoveli yenhlangano yokucwaninga yabacwaningi abaningi kuma-LMICs nama-HIC. Kungaba usizo kubacwaningi base-Afrika abanokuhlangenwe nakho kule fomethi ukunikeza izifundo zecala nezibonelo zokuqhubeka kwengxoxo.

Hardware

Idizayini nokusebenza ngokubambisana okuhlanganayo kuyindlela eyisisekelo yomphakathi womenzi womhlaba. Amathuluzi ahlukahlukene kanye nemininingwane yolwazi ikhona futhi isetshenziswa kabanzi ukuklama nokubukeza ukwakheka online, okuvele kufakazela ukuzuzisa izimpendulo ezisheshayo ku-Covid19. Izinkulungwane zabenzi emhlabeni wonke ziqale ukusebenzisa amaphrinta abo we-3D nabasiki be-laser ukukhiqiza izihlangu zobuso njengeminikelo ezibhedlela nasezindaweni zokunakekela emhlabeni wonke, zisekelwa ngabakhiqizi bemishini edingekayo:

Imininingwane yomphakathiIdizayini ye-3DElectronics / Design Code
https://www.careables.org/ https://www.welder.app/ https://www.opensourceecology.org/ https://www.openhardware.io/ https://www.thingscon.org/  https://hackaday.io/ https://www.instructables.com/ https://makershare.com/  https://www.thingiverse.com/ https://grabcad.com/  https://www.prusaprinters.org/  https://fab365.net/ https://upverter.com/ https://easyeda.com/ https://library.io/ https://codebender.cc/ 

I-DIY Bio ne-Community Biotechnology

Ngaphezu kwezinselelo zokusebenzisa amathuluzi okucwaninga edijithali, abacwaningi base-Afrika bavame ukubhekana nokushoda kwemishini yokucwaninga okwenziwe ngomzimba. I-DIYBio kanye ne-Biotechnology Yomphakathi inikezela ngendlela ekhulayo yokwenziwa kocwaningo yokuthi izibonelelo zivula isayensi nobuchwepheshe obuvulekile bokuqhuba ucwaningo nentuthuko. Le nhlangano eyandayo yomphakathi ibalulekile ukuvula imiphumela yokucwaninga ivela e-Afrika ngenkathi kunika amandla ukuthuthukiswa kwezixazululo okusimeme. Imizamo evela emaqenjini ocwaningo afana ne-Open Bioeconomy Lab nezindawo zayo ezise-Afrika, i-Hive Biolab, ithuthukisa ikhithi yamathuluzi ocwaningo evulekile ukunika amandla amalebhu ezindaweni ezinomkhawulo wezinsizakalo kanye namalebula e-Afrika, e-Asia nase-Latin America ukukhiqiza kwasendaweni ama-enitics ocwaningo afana nama-enzyme ezinamandla okuhlolela igciwane le-SARS-CoV 2.

Ukuphathwa Kwemininingwane Yocwaningo

Ukuphathwa kwemininingwane ye-COVID-19 kuyisihloko somhlaba jikelele, futhi sekubone izinhlangano eziningi zedatha ezinomthelela, njenge-Research Data Alliance (RDA) zakha amaqembu asebenzayo ukucacisa imikhuba yokuphathwa kwedatha (i-RDM). Le mikhuba ye-RDM ibheka imigomo ye-FAIR ne-CARE, kepha kubalulekile ukuthi amalungu ase-Afrika alezi zinhlangano zamazwe omhlaba azibandakanye kulezi zingxoxo ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amazinga aqhamukayo nemikhuba ekhombisa imininingwane ekhiqizwa e-Afrika.

Ukugqugquzela ukubandakanyeka kwabacwaningi base-Afrika ezingxoxweni ze-RDM kuzonikeza ithuba elibanzi lokuhlola imikhuba ye-RDM yamanje, ukuqeqeshwa nokunikezwa kwengqalasizinda ezwenikazi lase-Afrika. Lokhu kuzovumela ukuvela kwemikhuba ye-RDM evumelana nemikhuba yamazwe omhlaba futhi ikhombise ubuqiniso bocwaningo e-Afrika. Izophinde ibe nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwedatha yesikhathi esizayo kanye nezingqalasizinda zokushicilela. ?

Ukubhala nokushicilela

1) = i-Afrika ethile, 2) = umhlaba jikelele, umthombo ovulekile, 3) womhlaba jikelele, wezentengiso


ngokubambisana ngokubambisanaIzikhumbuzo zezikhungoamaphephabhuku (OA), amapulatifomu wokushicilela
1)
I-AfricArXiv, IAI / amakhosombe,
essa-africa.org/AERD, AMA-DICAMES
Ukucwaninga Okuvulekile kwe-AASI-AJOL, https://upverter.com/ https://easyeda.com/ https://library.io/ https://codebender.cc/ Isayensi yase-Afrika, Izingqondo Zase-Afrika
2)I-Authorea, Ngaphezulu, GitHubUkulungiselela kwe-OSFI-PeerJUDAJ, izifundiswa.org/journal, Uhlelo oluvulekile lwe-PKP's, Coko Foundation umkhiqizo suite, Vula Imiklomelo Yokushicilela, Janeane / I-PubPub, IsaziLed, Uhla lwemibhalo lwabezindaba oluholwa yizifundiswa
3)-Google Docs
Qeios.com, ezemfundo.biz/

Inqubo yokushicilela esheshayo (>>>)

Ucwaningo Nokuhlaziywa Ukulondolozwa kombhalo nedatha evulekile yokufinyeleleka Ukubuyekezwa kontanga womphakathi womhlabaUkushicilelwa kwezindaba
Ukuhlola nokuqoqa izincwadi zokucwaninga ezifanele nedatha, 
ucwaningo olusheshayo / olubi ngezimpawu, ubunzima begciwane, umthelela wezenhlalo nakwezomnotho wokuvalwa
https://github.com/dsfsi/covid19africa
AfricArXiv, DICAMES, bioRXiv, medArXiv, preprints.orgUkubuka kabusha
I-PeerCommunityIn
I-Hypothes.is
I-AJOL, Le grenier de Savoir, Amaphephabhuku ahlelwe ku-DOAJ

Amapulatifomu agxile kwe-Afrika kanye ne-Open Access efana ne-pan-African prerint repository AfricArXiv, i-Kenya-based Ukucwaninga Okuvulekile kwe-AAS iplatifomu kanye nezindawo zokugcina ezisetshenziswe njengamazwe omhlaba, njenge-Open Science Framework (OSF), Preprints.org, biorXiv, medrXiv neScienceOpen / okulungiselela, ukusebenzisa izindlela zokubuka kontanga ezigxile e-Afrika kodwa ezixhumene namazwe omhlaba, isb ngokujoyina ngokushesha amazwe omhlaba jikelele aqhutshwa ngokushesha imizamo yokusabela efana ne-Outfallak Science Rapid Prereview.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi izikhungo zase-Afrika zincike kakhulu ekushicilelweni kwamaphepha abukezwe ontanga ukuvisisa ukusebenza kahle kocwaningo nokuchaza inqubo yokuphakanyiswa. Izinhlelo ezinjalo zokuhlola ziyaxoxwa emhlabeni wonke, kepha akunakwenzeka ukuthi zishintshe esikhathini esizayo esiseduze. Ngakho-ke, isidingo sabaphenyi base-Afrika ukushicilela amaphepha abukezwe ontanga kumamagazini aqashelwa emazweni aphesheya kufanele sihlonishwe. Noma kunjalo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamamodeli wokushicilela amasha, njengokubuyekezwa kontanga okwenziwa ngeveli yokuqala ngamasevisi afana izinkolelo.is futhi khalime, ingahlehlisa lolu shicilelo. 

Ukudlulisa, Ukuhlola & Ukudluliswa kolwazi

1) = i-Afrika ethile, 2) = umhlaba jikelele, umthombo ovulekile, 3) womhlaba jikelele, wezentengiso


Ukuzibandakanya komphakathi neSayensi YezakhamiziImiphakathi yezobuchwepheshe kanye nokubonisana
1)I-Global Lab Network, Okungcolisayo, Isayensi Yezokuxhumana Hub Nigeria, Ikhekhe leSayensi, Inethiwekhi ye-African Science Literacy Network, Ngaphansi kweMicroscopeIkhodi ye-Afrika, i-AfricaOSH, i-Vilsquare, idatha evulekile yase-Afrika, EthLagos.io, Inethiwekhi ye-Open Science and Hardware Network (OSHNet), STICLab, Labs Robotch
2)I-ORCIDUkubuthanela i-Open Science Hardware (GOSH)

Isibalo esincane, kodwa esandayo, sezinhlelo ze-Citizen Science kanye namanethiwekhi ezwenikazi nazo zinikeza indlela yokusabalalisa ulwazi. Ukuzibandakanya kwabo kungatholakala ngokubeka amaphrojekthi ahlanganyelwayo, njengokugcina izakhamizi zinolwazi ngezilimi eziningi ngokwabelana ngemiyalezo ehunyushiwe eguquguqukayo kuwo wonke amanethiwekhi omphakathi (Bezuidenhout et al, 2020).

Ukuzibandakanya komphakathi kanye nobuntatheli besayensi kuyinsimu encane, kodwa evelayo ngaphakathi kwe-Afrika. Yize zisekhona izinselelo ezihambisana nokufunda kancane kwesayensi kanye nokuntuleka okungokomlando kokuzibandakanya phakathi kwezemfundo nomphakathi, kube nezinguquko eziningi ezisanda kwenzeka. Kubalulekile ukuthi abacwaningi baqhubeke nokuzibandakanya nomphakathi ukuvikela ulwazi olungelona iqiniso futhi bahlinzeke ngolwazi olusha mayelana nocwaningo lwasekhaya nolwamanye amazwe. Lokhu kwenziwa ngokusebenzisana nezintatheli zase-Afrika ukwenza ngcono ukufinyelela komphakathi ocwaningweni. 

Ukufinyelela kuzo zonke izakhamizi kudinga ukuphekelwa okwehlukahluka kwezilimi ngezindlela zezintatheli njengoba kubhekiswe kwi-African Science Literacy Network eNigeria, isb. Ngokuthumela imiyalezo ngevidiyo nokusabalalisa imininingwane ebalulekile njengoba inikezwe yi-WHO ngamanethiwekhi okuxhumana nabantu, njengoba kuphakanyiswe yiBezuidenhout, McNaughton & Havemann ( 2020) noma izindlela ze-Artificial Intelligence (AI) ezinjenge- "Geza izandla zakho" ngezilimi ezingama-500 +.

Ukwenza ngcono ukubonakala kocwaningo lwase-Afrika 

Ukusebenzisana kuyinto esemqoka ekuxhumaneni kwesayensi nokucwaninga. Ukugeleza kolwazi kufanele kube okuthembekile ukwakha ucwaningo oluzinzile kanye nengqalasizinda yezifundo. Ukuxhumanisa ucwaningo kusebenza kumapulatifomu ocwaningo ahlukene kuchazwa ukusebenzisana futhi kusekela ukutholakala kuyo yonke imikhakha, imingcele nesikhathi. 

Uhla lwezinhlangano ezahlukene zase-Afrika seluvele lubambe iqhaza ngalezi zinkinga. Ikakhulu, izikhungo zokucwaninga ezisebenzisa idatha / ukusebenza okuphezulu (njenge-DIRISA eNingizimu Afrika) zithuthukisa ubuchwepheshe obukhulu ekwabelaneni ngemininingwane nezinkundla zokusebenzelana ezisebenzisanayo. Izikhungo ezinjalo zisekelwa yimali nobungcweti bukazwelonke kanye namazwe omhlaba, futhi zibonisa izinsiza ezibalulekile zokwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda ye-Open Science e-Afrika.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinhlangano eziningi ezizimele, njenge-AfricArXiv kanye nezinqolobane ezifanayo zangaphambi kokuprinta nazo zisiza imizamo yokwenza lula ukwabiwa kolwazi kuzingxenyekazi zonke. Ngokusekelwa ngabalingani benethiwekhi ye-Africa Open Access, i-AfricArXiv inikeza insiza ebalulekile kubacwaningi base-Afrika. Ukuqala ekuqinisekisweni kwe-ORCID nemvume yokufunda umnikelo womcwaningi ekusatshalalisweni kwamanye amapulatifomu neziteshi ngokweZenodo.

Ukwakha amandla nokuqeqeshwa

AbaphenyiAbasebenzi bezokwelapha
https://www.tcc-africa.org/ http://www.authoraid.info/ // https://www.inasp.info/ http://eifl.net/ https://www.jstor.org/https://science4africa.org/ 
Iwebhusayithi ye-CDC Africa COVOD-19 yokuqeqeshwa kwezokwelapha: https://vimeo.com/401111213/a4f2ac2720
AMREF, https://amref.org/

Indlela yokusabalala kwesifo esiwumqedazwe we-COVID-19 esaqala eChina, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi sadlula e-Europe nase-United States, sivumele ukwenziwa ngcono kwezivivinyo zokutholwa, kanye nokunyuka kwezinhlelo eziningi zokucwaninga ze-COVID-19, kanye nesikhathi esinikezwe sona izwekazi lase-Afrika ukulungiselela impendulo yalo. Abaphenyi baseziyunivesithi nabazimele emazweni asebehlaselwe kakhulu yilolu bhubhane sebeqalile ukwakha izindlela ezivikela leli gciwane ekuhlanganiseni amaseli womuntu, bahlonza inqwaba yezidakamizwa ezikhona ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo, futhi bahlola ukusebenza kahle kwama-antibodies aqoqwe ezigulini eziseluleme kusuka ekuthelelekeni kwe-coronavirus, phakathi kweminye imizamo eminingi.

Ukusebenzisana kwamazwe omhlaba nososayensi base-Afrika kulokhu kufinyeleleka kubalulekile emizamweni yokunciphisa umonakalo wobhubhane kulelizwekazi, kuthuthukiswa izixazululo ezihambisana nesimo sendawo (isib. Izindleko eziphansi / ukuhlolwa kweselula), futhi zibaluleke kakhulu zicebise umsebenzi wontanga INyakatho Melika / iYurophu ngokuletha isethi yamakhono ehlukile, ubuchwepheshe kanye nesimo sengqondo kulo msebenzi. Izinhlangano ezinjengeSayensi ye-Afrika, eziqala futhi zisekele ukusebenzisana kwezocwaningo zamazwe omhlaba, zingenza imizamo yokwakha ngokushesha amandla okucwaninga e-COVID-19 ezwenikazi. Ngokuhlonza amaqembu ocwaningo emazweni ase-Afrika anamakhono, ubuchwepheshe kanye nobuchwepheshe bokwenza lolu hlobo locwaningo, kanye nabalingani baseNyakatho Melika naseYurophu asevele esebenza kwizisombululo, inhlangano ingakwazi ukuhlangana-ngokubhekela uhlobo oluthile locwaningo, izidingo zokusebenzisana , nobuchwepheshe bobuchwepheshe-bese uxhuma amaqembu ocwaningo ngosizo lweplatifomu eyenzakalelayo

(Vula) Izinsizakusebenza Zemfundo

Sekuvele kunomlando omude webanga nokufunda online kwi-Afrika. Isibonelo, i-University of South Africa, eyasungulwa ngonyaka we-1946, ngesinye sezikhungo ezindala kakhulu nezinkulu zokufunda amabanga emhlabeni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izikhungo ezifana neSikhungo Sokuvuselela Ukufundisa Nokufunda eNyuvesi yaseKapa, ​​zinikezela ngobuchwepheshe obaziwa emhlabeni wonke ekufundeni kwedijithali. Imisebenzi efanayo ibanjwa izikhungo namapulatifomu kuzwelonke nakwlelinye izwekazi (https://oerafrica.org/). Ukwenza amamephu akhona kulezi zindawo kuzonikeza izinsiza ezibalulekile zokwanda kwe-OER e-Afrika. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuqoqa imibhalo yezeluleko zokusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi okufunda we-OER / edijithali kuzilungiselelo ezinezinsizakusebenza ezinamandla aphansi (njengeyodwa yi-UCT) kuzonikezela ngemithombo elusizo.

I-LeLe Africa Africa Report 2019 ibala amazwe angama-55 ase-Afrika anezibonelo namakhono e-ICT kwezemfundo (amaphrofayli ezwe), amaningi awo angasetshenziswa ngesikhathi sokuhamba komsebenzi wokucwaninga kusuka ekuthuthukisweni kweprojekthi kuya ekushicilelweni kwemiphumela (i-Elletson neStromeyer, ka-2019). 

Ukuzinza kwezezimali 

Ukulungiselela imali esheshayo

Ukuze sikwazi ukwenza lula ukuvela kwengqalasizinda evulekile yokuphendula kwe-COVID-19, kubalulekile ukuthi imali itholakale ukulungiselela ukusebenzisana. Kunezindlela eziningi lapho lezi zimali zingatholwa, kubandakanya:

  • Hlanganisa imisebenzi edlulayo 
  • Khomba amaphrojekthi wamanje nabaxhasi abasebenzayo ababheka ukuguqulwa kwengqalasizinda (bese ufaka imininingwane evulekile)
  • Curate uhlu lwezingcingo ezivulekile zokusebenzelana nazo
  • Sondela kuhulumeni nabaxhasi bezwe / nohulumeni ngqo

Ukuqina kwezimali zesikhathi eside

Ukuhlanganiswa kwengqalasizinda evulekile e-Afrika kuzoba nezinzuzo zocwaningo lwase-Afrika kude kakhulu nobhubhane lwe-COVID-19. Ukuqinisekisa ukuzinza kwezimali zesikhathi eside ukusekela ukulungiswa kwezakhiwo eziphuma kule nkinga ekhona njengamanje, kuzobaluleka. Izinkinga okufanele zibhekwe kuzoba:

  • Hlanganisa ubufakazi ekuxhumaniseni okwenziwe nge-COVID-19 kanye nomthelela walezi zingqalasizinda ezivulekile
  • Qhubeka nokukhuthaza ubuncane obungenalutho be-1% GDP yocwaningo oluvela kohulumeni bezwe, futhi uqinisekise ukuthi ukubeka imali okuqhubekayo ngokuqinile kwengqalasizinda yocwaningo kusengaphambili
  • Hlaziya ngokucophelela izinqubomgomo zikazwelonke zokwabelana ngedatha nokucwaninga ukuze wenze ushintsho oluzoxhasa ukwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda evulekile
  • Bambisana nemikhandlu yezimali yokuqinisekisa ukuthi izingqalasizinda ze-Open Science zisezinhlelweni zazo
  • Cela ukusebenzisana kwamazwe omhlaba kusuka emphakathini we-Open Science womhlaba jikelele
  • Khomba amamodeli okuxhasa ngezimali, noma amamodeli webhizinisi asebenzayo asebenza nomphakathi ocwaningayo wase-Afrika. Siphakamisa imodeli yezimali esobala futhi exubile, okubandakanya:
  • i-pan-African: African Union, AfDB,…
  • Ohulumeni bamazwe ase-Afrika (iminyango ye-R & E)
  • imiphakathi yezwe yocwaningo efana ne-ASSAf (SA) ne-SRF (eSudan)
  • Izisekelo zase-Afrika ezinjengoMandela / Mo Ibrahim /…
  • Ixhaswe ukwesekwa kwamazwe omhlaba nge-B & M Gates Foundation, Chan-Zuckerberg Initiative, Mozilla Foundation, Sloan Foundation, njll.  
  • I-USAID; Izinhlangano ezixhasa ngezimali zase-Europe: (UK) Wellcome Trust; (GER) DFG, Max Planck / Leibniz / Helmholtz Society, DAAD; (FR) CNRS; (SWE) SIDA
  • Izinsizakalo zezeSayensi: ukuhumusha, iSayensi Ukuxhumana nomphakathi uwonke (yenza lula isayensi yezemfundo), ukuqeqeshwa ngokwakha amakhono kososayensi, ECR kanye nabafundi // okhokhela leyonkonzo enjani?

Imikhawulo nezinselelo

Izingxoxo zokuxhaswa kwezimali zesikhathi eside zezingqalasizinda ze-Open Science zidinga ukucaciswa ngokuthe ngqo mayelana nokuthi ngubani ozuzayo kwimiphumela yocwaningo olwabiwe ekuqaleni kwenqubo, nokuthi yini amafomethi avumela lokhu. Kunesidingo esiphuthumayo sokwakhiwa kabusha kohlelo lwezezimali lokuthi ngubani okhokhela lokho futhi nini. Izincwadi ezifundwayo nokugcinwa kwedatha kufanele kube yingxenye yenqubo yokucwaninga; kepha ngubani okhokhela ukusebenza / ukuphatha, ukwabiwa kwe-DOI, ukusingathwa kwedatha njll. kuliphi izinga kwinqubo?

Qaphela amazwe agunyaziwe nokuthi kungaba namthelela muni ezweni lakucwaningo lukazwelonke: Bezuidenhout et al (2019). Ukuntuleka kokuxhumana okuthembekile, okungabizi, okusheshayo kwe-inthanethi kusadonsa inselelo enkulu kunoma yimiphi imizamo yokusebenzisana kwe-inthanethi ezingxenyeni eziningi zezwekazi lase-Afrika. 

Outlook

Sifuna kwakhiwe ubudlelwano kanye nokubambisana ezwenikazi lonke kanye nokusekelwa komhlaba wonke okuvela kwezinye izifunda zomhlaba kanye namazwe anikela.

Okubhekwayo

I-Adegbeye OT, (2020). Kungani ukuhlukaniswa kwezenhlalo kungasisebenzisi. Umbhali (NG) 

Izimiso Zase-Afrika Zokuxhumana Nge-OA Scholarly: info.africarxiv.org/african-oa-princepts/

Ipulatifomu yesayensi evulekile yase-Afrika - africanopenscience.org.za 

Abukutsa-Onyango, Mary O. (2019). Okuhlangenwe nakho ku-Open Research & Education for Development Sustainable in Africa. UZenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3582532

I-Ayebare R, i-Waitt P, u-Okello S et al. Ukutshalwa kwezimali okulinganisayo kokulungiselela kwe-Ebola kwe-COVID-19 eSub-Saharan Africa [inguqulo 1; Ukubuyekezwa kontanga: kulindwe ukubuyekezwa kontanga]. I-AAS Open Res 2020, 3: 3 (https://doi.org/10.12688/aasopenres.13052.1

Ahinon et al. (2019). Imikhombandlela yolwazi ehlukahlukene yemfundo ehlukahlukene evela ne-Afrika: ukuhlola indawo yokuqala eyi-AfricArXiv. eLearning Africa News Portal. Kuyatholakala kusuka ela-newsportal.com/multi-directional-academic-nownow-exchange-from-and-about-africa-exploring-the-preprint-repository-africarxiv/

Akligoh, Harry, Havemann, Jo, Restrepo, Martin, & Obanda, Johanssen. (2020). Ukwenza imephu impendulo yomhlaba wonke ye-COVID-19: kusuka emazingeni aphansi kuye kohulumeni [Idatha isethiwe]. UZenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3732377 

Bezuidenhout, Louise, Havemann, Jo, Kitchen, Stephanie, De Mutiis, Anna, & Owango, Joy. (2020). Izinqolobane ze-African Digital Research: Mapping the Landscape [preprint]. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3732274 

I-Bezuidenhout L, Karrar O, Lezaun J, Nobes A (2019) unswinyo lwezeMnotho kanye nezezemfundo: Umthelela okweqile nemiphumela yesikhathi eside. I-PLoS ONE 14 (10): e0222669. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222669

UBezuidenhout L, McNaughton A & Havemann J (2020, Mashi 26). Amavidiyo wolwazi we-COVID-19 wezilimi eziningi. UZenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3727534 

UBoudry C, Alvarez-Muñoz P, Arencibia-Jorge R, Ayena D, Brouwer NJ, Chaudhuri Z, Chawner B, Epee E, Erraïs K, Fotouhi A, Gharaibeh AM, uHasanein DH, uHerwig-Carl MC, uHoward K, Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo D, Laughrea P, Lopez FA, Machin-Mastromatteo JD, Malerbi FK, Ndiaye PA, Noor NA, Pacheco-Mendoza J, Papastefanou VP, Shah M, Shields CL, Wang YX, Yartsev V, Mouriaux F. 2019. Ukungalingani emhlabeni jikelele ekufinyeleleni imibhalo ephelele yesayensi: isibonelo se-ophthalmology. I-PeerJ 7: e7850 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7850

I-Cárdenas, OVL (2019) I-Technosocial bootstrapping yesikhathi esizayo se-solarpunk ye / kusuka eGlobal South. yamagazine

U-Elletson, H. no Stromeyer, R. (eds) 2019. I-eLearning Africa Report 2019, eLearning Africa / ICWE: Germany. Kuyatholakala kusuka https://elearning-africa.com/media_publications_report_2019.php 

UKramer, uBianca, noBosman, uJeroen. (2018, Januwari). Uthingo lwenkambiso evulekile yesayensi. UZenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1147025 

Maia Chagas, A .; UMolloy, J .; I-Prieto Godino, L .; I-Baden, T. Leveraging Vula i-Hardware Yokuqeda i-Burden ye-COVID-19 ku-Global Health Systems. Preprints 2020, 2020030362 doi: 10.20944 / preprints202003.0362.v1

UMcPhee, C., Schillo, RS, Earl, L., & Kinder, J. 2018. Umhleli: Ukuqanjwa Okubandakanyayo Kwamazwe Athuthukile. Ukubuyekezwa Kokuphathwa Kwezobuchwepheshe, 8 (2) 3–6. http://doi.org/10.22215/timreview/1134  

UPoynder, R (Okthoba 31, 2019, Izingxoxo Ne-OA: K. Vijay Raghavan, Umeluleki Oyisayensi Oyinhloko, Uhulumeni waseNdiya. poynder.blogspot.com/2019/10/the-oa-interviews-k-vijayraghavan.html 

Izimiso Zokufinyelela Okuvulekile Kwezemfundo: https://info.africarxiv.org/african-principles-for-open-access-in-scholarly-communication/ 

USmith I (2019). I-DoAJ Guest Post: Ukubuka konke izwe lase-Afrika OA kugxile ekushicileleni okuyisazi. I-Blog.doaj.org

Tennant, JP; I-Crane, H .; Crick, T .; UDavila, J .; I-Enkhbayar, A .; I-Hadmann, J .; I-Kramer, B .; UMartin, R .; Masuzzo, P .; Nobes, A .; Ilayisi, C .; URivera-López, B .; URoss-Hellauer, T .; I-Sattler, S .; I-Thacker, PD; UVanholsbeeck, M. (2019) Izihloko Eziyishumi Ezivuthayo ezungeze iScholarly Publishing. Ukushicilelwa 2019, 7, 34. doi.org/10.3390/izinhlangano7020034

Isithasiselo: Izinhlangano nezinsiza zedijithali

Izinhlangano zase-Afrika kanye nezangezona ezase-Afrika kanye nezinsizakalo zedijithali njengoba kushiwo kulo mbhalo. Ukuze uthole inguqulo enwetshiwe yaleli tafula iya https://tinyurl.com/sfbb6xn 

Inhlanganoi-urlizwe
Uhlelo Lokulwelwa Kwezingqalasizinda zase-Afrikahttp://infrastructureafrica.opendataforafrica.org/I-Pan-African
I-African Development Bank (AfDB)https://www.afdb.org/enTunisia
I-African Information HIghway Portalhttp://dataportal.opendataforafrica.org/I-PanAfrican
Amajenali ase-Afrika kwi-Intanethi (AJOL)https://www.ajol.info/Iningizimu Afrika
Idatha Evulekile yase-Afrikahttps://africaopendata.net/Ghana
Inethiwekhi ye-African Science Literacy Networkhttps://www.africanscilit.org/Nigeria
I-AfricaOSHhttp://africaosh.com/Ghana
I-AfricArXivhttp://info.africarxiv.org/i-pan-Afrika
Ama-AfriLabshttps://www.afrilabs.com/Nigeria
Ukucinga kwe-BASEhttps://base-search.net/about/en/contact.phpI-Globa
bioRXivhttps://www.biorxiv.org/USA
Ikhekhe leSayensihttp://www.rouleauxfoundation.org/cafe-sci/ENigeria | Umhlaba jikelele
Kunakekelwahttps://www.careables.org/ I-EU | Emhlabeni jikelele
Ikhodi ye-Afrikahttps://github.com/CodeForAfrica/Kenya
Idathahttps://dataverse.org/USA
AMA-DICAMEShttp://dicames.scienceafrique.org/Madagascar
I-EthLagoshttps://ethlagos.io/Nigeria
I-Figubehttps://figshare.com/London | E-USA
UGephihttps://gephi.org/Global
Ukubuthwa Kwe-Global Innovation (GIG)https://www.globalinnovationgathering.org/EJalimane | Emhlabeni jikelele
I-Global Lab Networkhttps://glabghana.wordpress.com/Ghana
-Google Scholarhttps://scholar.google.com/Global
I-Hypothes.ishttps://hypothes.is/USA
Inethiwekhi yeHub Ethintahttps://impacthub.net/Austria
INASPhttps://www.inasp.info/i-United Kingdom
Inethiwekhi yeJokkolabshttps://www.jokkolabs.net/France
Ilebhu eyodwa nje ye-Giant (JOGL)https://jogl.ioIFrance | Emhlabeni jikelele
KumasiHivehttps://www.kumasihive.comGhana
Kumuhttp://kumu.io/USA
I-MboaLabhttps://www.mboalab.africaCameroon
medrXivhttps://www.medrxiv.org/Global
Ukuthuthukiswahttps://www.mendeley.com/i-United Kingdom
I-Oceanprotocol.comhttps://oceanprotocol.com/Singapore
I-OER Africahttps://www.oerafrica.org/Iningizimu Afrika
Vula i-Afrikahttps://africaopendata.org/Kenya
Vula Ulwazi Lamamephuhttps://openknowledgemaps.org/Austria
Inethiwekhi evulekile yesayensi kanye ne-Hardware (OSHNet)http://www.oshnet.africaTanzania
vula i-Afrikahttps://open.africa/Iningizimu Afrika
I-ORCIDhttp://orcid.org/USA
Uhlaka lweSayensi evulekile (i-OSF)http://OSF.ioUSA
Iphepha lephephahttp://Paperhive.orgGermany
I-PeerCommunityInhttps://ecology.peercommunityin.org/France
Okungcolisayohttp://pollicy.orgI-Pan-African
Preprints.orghttps://www.preprints.org/Switzerland
Ukubuka kabushahttps://www.prereview.org/USA
Amaphrothokholi.iohttps://www.protocols.io/USA
vulaScihttps://ropensci.org/USA
I-Re3Datahttps://www.re3data.org/Global
Ukulungiswa kabushahttps://refigure.org/Global
ResearchGatehttps://www.researchgate.net/Germany
Inethiwekhi ye-RLabshttps://rlabs.orgIningizimu Afrika
Labs eRobotechhttp://www.robotech.co.tzTanzania
Isayensi Yezokuxhumana Isayensihttp://www.SciComNigeria.orgNigeria
IsayensiOpenhttps://www.scienceopen.com/USA
I-SciLithttps://www.scilit.net/Switzerland
I-STICLabhttp://www.sticlab.co.tzTanzania
I-TCC Africahttps://www.tcc-africa.org/Kenya
AmaLambuhttps://www.lens.org/Australia
Ngaphansi kweMicroscopehttps://www.underthemicroscope.net/Kenya
I-Vilsquarehttps://vilsquare.org/Nigeria
I-Zoterohttp://zotero.org/USA


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